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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Sex-specific influence on cardiac structural remodeling and therapy in cardiovascular disease

Fig. 2

Molecular signaling of inflammatory pathways involved in structural remodeling. Inflammatory pathways activated upon cardiac injury include the IFN-γ/JAK-STAT pathway (purple), the TLR pathway (green; either in an endosome (left pathway) or on the cell membrane (right pathway)), the TNF-α/MEKK pathway (red), and the TGF-β/BMP/SMAD pathway (blue), triggering secretion of cytokines and chemokines and leading to, e.g., apoptosis and cell proliferation. Crosstalk between the pathways is possible (dashed arrow) and collaboration with the Wnt pathway (light gray) and CaMKII (dark gray) promoting cardiac inflammation. Sex differences in these pathways are discussed in the text, such as the inhibitory effects of estrogen on CaMKII, BNP, and NFκB

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