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Table 2 Urethral striated muscle sex differences summary

From: Sex differences in lower urinary tract biology and physiology

Species Sex Histologic studies Functional studies References
Rat Female Striated muscle is thin and circular, prominently occupying the middle urethra.
Type II fibers are predominant.
Urine flow disrupted by partial/full closure of urethra
Lower max flow rate and shorter micturition time
Praud et al. [51]
Lim et al. [52]
Buffini et al. [56]
Biérinx et al. [53]
Streng et al. [59]
Male Striated muscle forms a thick layer.
100% type II fibers in the upper urethra. Luminal muscle contains a mix of type I and II fibers.
  
Human Female Striated muscle extends the length of the urethra and is composed of predominantly type I slow twitch fibers (87% vs. 13%).   Benoit et al. [60]
Ho et al. [62]
Male Striated muscle extends from the membranous urethra over the prostate and has a mixture of both slow and fast twitch fibers (65% vs. 35%).