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Table 1 Urethral smooth muscle sex differences summary

From: Sex differences in lower urinary tract biology and physiology

Species Sex Histologic studies Functional studies References
Rabbit Female Greater density of α2 adrenoreceptor compared to α1 (122 vs. 33 fmol/mg) Large contractile response to α2 agonist Morita et al. [44]
Male Equal amounts of α2 and α1 adrenoreceptors (32 vs. 34 fmol/mg) Small contractile response to α2 agonist  
Mouse Female Scant α1-adrenoreceptor expression Smaller contractions in response to agonist Alexandre et al. [45]
Male Abundant α1-adrenoreceptor expression Large contractions in response to agonist  
Human Female During development, urethral SM had smaller volumes (4.95 mm3) and wider lumens (1.2 mm2)   Oswald et al. [34]
Male During development, urethral SM had larger volumes (12.04 mm3) and narrower lumens (1.18 mm2)