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Table 2 Sex-related differences in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in adult cancer patients

From: Clinical and preclinical evidence of sex-related differences in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

Adult studies Number of patients Age at diagnosis Time after chemo-therapy Anthracycline dose Major conclusion/comments
Von Hoff et al. [82] 4018 Mainly adult population (10% < 18 years) 0–231 days 13–5047 mg/m2 Mean = 240 mg/m2 Median = 183 mg/m2 No effect of sex
Hrushesky et al. [83] 34 19–78 2 years 300–550 mg/m2 Higher ratio of females developed CHF (7 out of 24, compared to 1 out of 10) Confounding factors of sex-dependent diagnosis and DOX dose.
Clements et al. [45] 33 Mean age of 55 ± 14 Within 1 year after the onset of treatment 40–618 mg/m2 Mean = 223 mg/m2 Male sex was an independent risk factor for development of systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction early after initiation of DOX
Limat et al. [84] 151 25–79 Median age of 59 1 year 50–400 mg/m2 Median = 290 mg/m2 No effect of sex
Hequet et al. [46] 141 15–69 Median 47 At least 5 years 250–550 mg/m2 Median = 300 mg/m2 Male sex was a risk factor for subclinical cardiomyopathy
Elbl et al. [85] 47 18–76 Mean of 49 1 year 50–400 mg/m2 Mean = 277 mg/m2 Sex was not a risk factor for either drop in EF > 10% or all cardiac events
Hershman et al. [50] 4001 > 65 8 years NA No difference (elderly population)
Neilan et al. [49] 91 Mean of 43 A median of 88 months Mean = 276 mg/m2 No significant effect of gender on major adverse cardiac events
Szmit et al. [47] 208 Median of 56 After the last administered cycle of chemotherapy 300–400 mg/m2 Median = 350 mg/m2 Female sex was protective for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (OR = 0.324)
Wang et al. [48] 2285 Mean of 53 193–1666 days Doxorubicin 88–267 mg/m2 Epirubicin 100–295 mg/m2 Idarubicin 8–19 mg/m2 Male gender hazard ratio of 1.84 for cardiac events (symptomatic heart failure or cardiac death)