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Table 1 Gender preference in bacterial infections

From: Sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections

Type of infection Gender preference Main bacteria species Associated diseases or complications References
Gastrointestinal tract infections Men Salmonella typhi Typhoid ileal perforation [30]
Campylobacter jejuni Inflammatory bowel disease [37, 38]
Helicobacter pylori Gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer [39]
Clostridium difficile Fulminant colitis [47, 48]
Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis, enterocolitis, and gastroenterocolitis [52]
Vibrio spp. Gastroenteritis and wound infections [57, 200, 245, 246]
Women Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hemolytic–uremic syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome [59, 60]
Respiratory tract infections Men Streptococcus pneumoniae Community-acquired pneumonia [79]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis [93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100]
Legionella spp. Legionnaires’ disease [131, 132, 141, 133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140]
Bloodstream infections Men Many bacterial species Septic shock, organ dysfunction, severe sepsis [18, 162, 177, 163, 165,166,167, 173,174,175,176]
Urinary tract infections Women Escherichia coli Acute cystitis, inflammation, and sepsis [229, 231]
Lyme borreliosis Women Borrelia burgdorferi Erythema migrans and facial nerve palsy [232, 233]
Sexually transmitted infections Women Chlamydia trachomatis Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease [235, 237]
Neisseria gonorrhea Gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease [234]
Listeriosis Women Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia, meningitis [241]
Q fever Men Coxiella burnetii Fever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia [243]
Wound infections Men Mycobacterium marinum Swimming-pool granuloma or fish-tank granuloma disease [245]