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Fig. 4 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 4

From: Production of amphiregulin and recovery from influenza is greater in males than females

Fig. 4

Amphiregulin (Areg) expression is greater in respiratory epithelial cells derived from human male than female donors following seasonal influenza A virus infection. Primary human type II alveolar epithelial lung cells were isolated from male and female donors and either mock-infected or infected with a seasonal H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) at a high MOI (MOI = 5). Amphiregulin mRNA expression was measured 24 hpi in cells derived from female (n = 6) and male (n = 4) donors (a). Virus levels were measured using the number of M-gene copies normalized to β-actin in cells derived from female (n = 6) and male (n = 4) donors (b). Areg mRNA expression was normalized to Gapdh and to mock-infected controls using the ΔΔCt method. Data represent means ± SEM from two independent experiments, with significant differences represented by asterisks (*)

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