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Fig. 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 1

From: Production of amphiregulin and recovery from influenza is greater in males than females

Fig. 1

Females suffer a worse outcome than males during sub-lethal influenza A virus infection. Adult male and female mice were inoculated intranasally with a low dose of 2009 H1N1 virus and euthanized at selected time points post-challenge. Mice were monitored daily for changes in body mass for 25 days post-inoculation (dpi) (a n = 10/sex). Infectious virus titers in the lungs were measure at 5, 9, and 14 dpi (b n = 5–9/sex/time point), with the TCID50 limit of detection (LOD) illustrated with a dotted line. Pulmonary function, based on lung diffusing capacity (DFCO), was measured at 14 dpi (c n = 7–8/sex), with the dotted lines representing the values (means ± SEM) for mock-infected mice. H&E stained lung sections (d) collected at 14 dpi were scored for inflammation (e n = 5–7/sex) and the proportion of lung tissue damaged following infection was quantified with ImageJ (f n = 5–7/sex). Data represent means ± SEM from two independent experiments, with significant differences represented by asterisks (*)

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