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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population and pregnancy outcomes

From: Sex differences in umbilical artery Doppler indices: a longitudinal study

  Female (n = 142) Male (n = 152) P value
Maternal
 Age (years) 29 (range 20–43) 30 (range 18–40) 0.646
 Body mass index at booking (kg/m2) 24.85 ± 4.00 24.45 ± 3.65 0.374
 Nulliparous 70 (49.3%) 76 (50.0%) 0.904
Fetal
 Gestational age at birth (days)a 279 (range 238–297) 280 (range 234–297) 0.633
 Birth weight (g) 3593 ± 431 3603 ± 533 0.860
 Placental weight (g) 631 ± 128 645 ± 142 0.385
 Fetal-placental ratio 5.84 ± 1.03 5.74 ± 0.98 0.413
 5-min Apgar score 10 (range 2–10) 9 (range 0–10) 0.348
 Umbilical artery pH 7.25 ± 0.10 7.25 ± 0.08 0.831
 Umbilical artery base excess (mmol/L) −4.16 ± 3.91 −4.54 ± 3.06 0.472
 Meconium stained liquor 29 (20.4%) 25 (16.6%) 0.443
 Admission to NICU 8 (5.7%) 11 (7.3%) 0.577
 Preterm birth, < 37+0 weeks’ gestation 1 (0.7%) 6 (3.9%) 0.068
 Preeclampsia 3 (2.1%) 6 (3.9%) 0.361
 SGA/IUGR 1 (0.7%) 3 (2.0%) 0.348
Mode of delivery
 Normal 114 (80.3%) 126 (82.9%) 0.563
 Vacuum/forceps 6 (4.2%) 7 (4.6%) 0.874
 Cesarean section 22 (15.5%) 19 (12.5%) 0.459
  1. Data are presented as n (%), median (range), or mean ± SD, as appropriate
  2. P values were calculated using independent samples t test for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables
  3. NICU neonatal intensive care unit, SGA small for gestational age, IUGR intrauterine growth retardation
  4. a279 days = 39+6 weeks, 280 days = 40+0 weeks