Skip to main content

Table 3 Highest expressed protein-coding genes in late first trimester placenta

From: Sex differences in the late first trimester human placenta transcriptome

# Gene symbol Chr Description TPM highest in placenta?a Placenta specific?b Where else expressed?b Upregulated in first vs termc
1 KISS1 1 KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor + + + N   Term
2 CGA 6 Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide N N   
3 TFPI2 7 Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 N N   
4 CSH1 17 Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1 + + N   
5 CSH2 17 Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 + N   
6 CGB8 19 Chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 8 + + Almost Embryonic tissue, skin  
7 CGB5 19 Chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 5 + + Almost Embryonic tissue, testis, heart, skin  
8 SPP1 4 Secreted phosphoprotein 1 N N   
9 TMSB10 2 Thymosin beta 10 N N   
10 EEF1A1 6 Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 N N   
11 PEG10 7 Paternally expressed 10 N N   
12 FTL 19 Ferritin light chain N N   
13 CGB3 19 Chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3 + + Almost Embryonic tissue, connective tissue, testis, ovary  
14 RPS12 6 Ribosomal protein S12 N N   
15 PSG3 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 3 + + + Almost Vascular, testis, muscle, kidney, intestine, skin Term
16 ACTB 7 Actin beta N N   
17 IFI6 1 Interferon alpha inducible protein 6 N N   
18 COL3A1 2 Collagen type III alpha 1 chain N N   
19 GDF15 19 Growth differentiation factor 15 + + N   Term
20 PAGE4 X PAGE family member 4 + N Prostate, heart  
21 RPS27 1 Ribosomal protein S27 N N   
22 ACTG1 17 Actin gamma 1 N N   
23 FN1 2 Fibronectin 1 N N   
24 RPL13A 19 Ribosomal protein L13a N N   
25 HIST1H1C 6 Histone cluster 1 H1 family member c N N   
26 RPS11 19 Ribosomal protein S11 N N   
27 S100A11 1 S100 calcium binding protein A11 N N   
28 HIST1H2BK 6 Histone cluster 1 H2B family member k N N   
29 HIST1H3B 6 Histone cluster 1 H3 family member b No value Almost Thymus, liver, kidney, testis  
30 HIST1H1E 6 Histone cluster 1 H1 family member e No value Almost Mouth, kidney, brain  
31 PSAP 10 Prosaposin N N   
32 EEF2 19 Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 N N   
33 RPS18 6 Ribosomal protein S18 N N   
34 RPL10A 6 Ribosomal protein L10a N N   
35 CALR 19 Calreticulin N N   
36 HIST1H1B 6 Histone cluster 1 H1 family member b No value Almost Bladder, intestine, skin  
37 TGM2 20 Transglutaminase 2 N N   
38 RPL7A 9 Ribosomal protein L7a N N   
39 SAT1 X Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 N N   
40 XAGE3 X X antigen family member 3 + Yes   
41 HIST1H4D 6 Histone cluster 1 H4 family member d No value Almost Adipose tissue, vascular  
42 HSPA8 11 Heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8 N N   
43 PSG4 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 4 + + N   Term
44 GAPDH 12 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N N   
45 EBI3 19 Epstein-Barr virus induced 3 No value* N   Term
46 RPS4X X Ribosomal protein S4, X-linked N N   
47 RPS6 9 Ribosomal protein S6 N N   
48 RPS8 1 Ribosomal protein S8 N N   
49 EFEMP1 2 EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 N N   
50 RPLP0 12 Ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P0 N N   
51 ADAM12 10 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 + + N   Term
52 S100A9 1 S100 calcium binding protein A9 N N   Term
53 CYP19A1 15 Cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 + + + N   Term
54 COL4A1 13 Collagen type IV alpha 1 chain N N   
55 ANXA5 4 Annexin A5 N N   
56 RPL19 17 Ribosomal protein L19 N N   
57 KRT18 12 Keratin 18 N N   
58 XAGE2 X X antigen family member 2 + + Almost Heart, uterus  
59 HSP90AB1 6 Heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1 N N   
60 HIST1H4C 6 Histone cluster 1 H4 family member c No value N   
61 IGF2 11 Insulin-like growth factor 2 N N   
62 HSD3B1 1 Hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 + + N   
63 EZR 6 Ezrin N N   
64 SLC2A1 1 Solute carrier family 2 member 1 N N   Term
65 RPS2 16 Ribosomal protein S2 N N   
66 FBLN1 22 Fibulin 1 + N   Term
67 S100P 4 S100 calcium binding protein P N N   Term
68 SDC1 2 Syndecan 1 N N   Term
69 HIST1H3F 6 Histone cluster 1 H3 family member f No value Almost Liver, connective tissue, skin  
70 CTSL 9 Cathepsin L N N   
71 HIST1H4F 6 Histone cluster 1 H4 family member f No value Almost Blood, connective tissue  
72 PSG1 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1 + + + N   Term
73 RPS25 11 Ribosomal protein S25 N N   
74 PSG5 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 5 + + N   
75 PLAC4 21 Placenta specific 4 + + + N   
76 RPL11 1 Ribosomal protein L11 N N   
77 SPARC 5 Secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich N N   
78 KRT19 17 Keratin 19 N N   
79 PSG2 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 2 + + + N   
80 RPL8 8 Ribosomal protein L8 N N   
81 HSP90B1 12 Heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1 N N   
82 GPC3 X Glypican 3 N N   
83 RPL7 8 Ribosomal protein L7 N N   
84 PAPPA2 1 Pappalysin 2 + + N   Term
85 KRT8 12 Keratin 8 + N   
86 RPL5 1 Ribosomal protein L5 N N   
87 GH2 17 Growth hormone 2 + N   
88 MEST 7 Mesoderm specific transcript N N   
89 RPN2 20 Ribophorin II N N   
90 PRDX5 11 Peroxiredoxin 5 N N   
91 GSTP1 11 Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 N N   
92 LDHB 12 Lactate dehydrogenase B N N   
93 HIST1H3C 6 Histone cluster 1 H3 family member c No value Almost Testis  
94 VGLL1 X Vestigial-like family member 1 + + N   
95 RPL4 15 Ribosomal protein L4 N N   
96 ENO1 1 Enolase 1 N N   First
97 PAPPA 9 Pappalysin 1 + + N   Term
98 COL4A2 13 Collagen type IV alpha 2 chain N N   
99 RPS3A 4 Ribosomal protein S3A N N   
100 SLC40A1 2 Solute carrier family 40 member 1 N N   
101 TIMP3 22 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 N N   
102 ANXA1 9 Annexin A1 N N   
103 RPL35 9 Ribosomal protein L35 N N   
104 TPT1 13 Tumor protein, translationally controlled 1 N N   
105 EPAS1 2 Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 N N   
106 HIST1H2BI 6 Histone cluster 1 H2B family member i No value Yes No value in any UniGene body site  
107 S100A6 1 S100 calcium binding protein A6 N N   
108 RPL3 22 Ribosomal protein L3 N N   
109 RPL12 9 Ribosomal protein L12 N N   
110 DUSP9 X Dual specificity phosphatase 9 N N   
111 PSG9 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-lycoprotein 9 + + + Almost Vascular, spleen, eye,mammary gland, lung, skin Term
112 FOXO4 X Forkhead box O4 + + N   
113 PEG3 19 Paternally expressed 3 N N   
114 RPL41 12 Ribosomal protein L41 N N   
115 FAM129B 9 Family with sequence similarity 129 member B N N   
116 PDIA3 15 Protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 N N   
117 HIST1H4B 6 Histone cluster 1 H4 family member b No value Almost Lymph node, testis, liver  
118 MYL12B 18 Myosin light chain 12B N N   
119 HIST1H1D 6 Histone cluster 1 H1 family member d No value N   
120 SPINT1 15 Serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 + N   
121 RPLP2 11 Ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 N N   
122 FBN2 5 Fibrillin 2 + N   
123 RPS27A 2 Ribosomal protein S27a N N   
124 BSG 19 Basigin (Ok blood group) N N   
125 CTNNB1 3 Catenin beta 1 N N   
126 RPL21 13 Ribosomal protein L21 N N   
127 COL6A2 21 Collagen type VI alpha 2 chain N N   First
128 RASA1 5 RAS p21 protein activator 1 + + N   
129 ATP5B 12 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide N N   
130 RPS20 8 Ribosomal protein S20 N N   
131 RPS13 11 Ribosomal protein S13 N N   
132 CANX 5 Calnexin N N   
133 ISM2 14 Isthmin 2 + + + N   
134 RPL9 4 Ribosomal protein L9 N N   
135 HBG2 11 Hemoglobin subunit gamma 2 N N   
136 RACK1 5 Receptor for activated C kinase 1 N N   
137 LUM 12 Lumican N N   
138 NPM1 5 Nucleophosmin N N   
139 HIST1H2BO 6 Histone cluster 1 H2B family member o No value* Almost Liver  
140 PEBP1 12 Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 N N   
141 RPL10 X Ribosomal protein L10 N N   
142 P4HB 17 Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta N N   
143 IGFBP3 7 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 N N   
144 EIF4G2 11 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 2 N N   
145 CD63 12 CD63 molecule N N   
146 PRDX1 1 Peroxiredoxin 1 N N   
147 CD24 6 CD24 molecule N N   First
148 YBX1 1 Y-box binding protein 1 N N   
149 BEX3 X Brain expressed X-linked 3 N N   
150 HSPA5 9 Heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 N N   
151 UBC 12 Ubiquitin C N N   
152 MBNL3 X Muscleblind-like splicing regulator 3 + N   
153 RPS19 19 Ribosomal protein S19 N N   
154 RPS14 5 Ribosomal protein S14 N N   
155 PFN1 17 Profilin 1 N N   
156 RHOA 3 Ras homolog family member A N N   
157 HIST1H2BD 6 Histone cluster 1 H2B family member d N N   
158 COX8A 11 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8A N N   
159 TCEAL9 X Transcription elongation factor A like 9 N N   
160 TMSB4X X Thymosin beta 4, X-linked N N   
161 HSPB8 12 Heat shock protein family B (small) member 8 + N   Term
162 KRT7 12 Keratin 7 N N   First
163 TINAGL1 1 Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 + N   
164 RPL27 17 Ribosomal protein L27 N N   
165 HSP90AA1 14 Heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 N N   
166 HBA2 16 Hemoglobin subunit alpha 2 N    
167 RRBP1 20 Ribosome binding protein 1 N    
168 HMGA1 6 High mobility group AT-hook 1 N N   First
169 TPI1 12 Triosephosphate isomerase 1 N N   
170 PTMA 2 Prothymosin, alpha N N   
171 RPSA 3 Ribosomal protein SA N N   
172 CHCHD2 7 Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 N N   
173 RPL6 12 Ribosomal protein L6 N N   
174 PSG6 19 Pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 6 + + Almost Vascular, heart, skin, intestine Term
175 UBB 17 Ubiquitin B N N   
  1. aPlacenta enrichment: (+) = placenta had the highest TPM of any body site on UniGene; (++) = placenta TPM value was one order of magnitude higher than the next-highest body site; (+++) = placenta TPM value was two orders of magnitude higher; N = placenta is not highest; No value = means placenta TPM = 0 on UniGene. *Validation with GSE73016 found expression in term placenta [38]
  2. bPlacenta specificity: “specific” was strictly defined as no expression (TPM = 0) in other healthy body sites on UniGene. “Almost” specific was defined as TPM > 0 in six healthy body sites or less (listed). “N” means gene is expressed in at least seven other tissues (not listed)
  3. cDEGs between early first trimester (“First”, 45–59 days) and term ("Term") placenta based on microarray studies in Mikheev et al. [44]
\