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Table 3 Adjusted UBT values of H. pylori-infected patients according to baseline characteristics by sex

From: Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study

  Estimate (95% CI)a Estimate (95% CI)b Adjusted mean UBT value (95% CI of the mean)
  Men Women Men Women
Intercept 27.6 (25.9, 29.5) 37.2 (36.0, 38.4) Overall 24.9 (24.4, 25.4) Overall 33.7 (33.3, 34.2)
Age, years
 25–34 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 22.0 (21.4, 22.5) 30.9 (30.4, 31.4)
 35–44 2.0 (1.5, 2.4) 3.5 (2.9, 4.0) 24.0 (23.4, 24.5) 34.4 (33.9, 34.9)
 45–54 3.2 (2.7, 3.7) 2.6 (2.0, 3.3) 25.2 (24.6, 25.8) 33.6 (33.0, 34.1)
 55–64 4.0 (3.3, 4.6) 3.2 (2.5, 4.0) 26.0 (25.2, 26.7) 34.2 (33.4, 34.9)
 65–95 5.6 (4.8, 6.4) 4.7 (3.7, 5.7) 27.6 (26.7, 28.5) 35.6 (34.7, 36.6)
SES of place of residence
 1–5 (low SES) 0.8 (0.4, 1.1) 2.7 (2.3, 3.2) 25.3 (24.8, 25.9) 35.1 (34.6, 35.6)
 6–10 (intermediate–high SES) 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 24.6 (24.0, 25.1) 32.4 (31.9, 32.8)
BMI, kg/m2
 < 18.5 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 29.1 (27.2, 30.9) 38.1 (36.9, 39.3)
 18.5–24.9 − 3.2 (− 5.0, − 1.4) − 2.6 (− 3.8, − 1.4) 25.8 (25.5, 26.2) 35.4 (35.0, 35.8)
 25.0–29.9 − 5.5 (− 7.3, − 3.7) − 5.4 (− 6.7, − 4.2) 23.5 (23.2, 23.9) 32.6 (32.2, 33.1)
 30+ − 7.7 (− 9.6, − 5.9) − 9.2 (− 10.5, − 7.9) 21.3 (20.9, 21.8) 28.8 (28.3, 29.4)
Smoking
 Unknown − 1.3 (− 1.7, − 0.8) − 1.7 (− 2.2, − 1.2) 25.6 (25.0, 26.2) 35.3 (34.8, 35.8)
 Ever − 4.6 (− 5.1, − 4.1) − 8.1 (− 8.8, − 7.4) 22.3 (21.7, 22.9) 28.9 (28.2, 29.6)
 Never 0 (reference) 0 (reference) 26.9 (26.4, 27.4) 37.0 (36.6, 37.4)
  1. BMI body mass index, DOB delta over baseline, SD standard deviation, UBT urea breath test, SES socioeconomic status
  2. aP < 0.001 for all variables was obtained in type III tests of fixed effects. Denominators: degree of freedom (df) of all variables was 27,123. Numerators: df = 1 (F = 16.7), 2 (F = 192.9), 3 (F = 109.2), and 4 (F = 73.6) for SES of place of residence, smoking, BMI, and age, respectively
  3. bP < 0.001 for all variables was obtained in type III tests of fixed effects. Denominators: df of all variables was 41,573. Numerators: df = 1 (F = 148.2), 2 (F = 259.6), 3 (F = 173.4), and 4 (F = 47.2) for SES of place of residence, smoking, BMI, and age, respectively
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