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Table 1 Unadjusted mean DOB of 13C-UBT values of H. pylori-infected patients according to baseline characteristics

From: Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study

  Overall Men Women  
  N Mean UBT value (SD), ‰ P N Mean UBT value (SD), ‰ P N Mean UBT value (SD), ‰ P P for interaction by sex
Sex
 Men 30,543 23.6 (15.4) < 0.001a    
 Women 45,860 34.6 (22.8)     
Age, yearsb   df = 4, F = 52.8 < 0.001b   df = 4, F = 60.7 < 0.001c   df = 4, F = 29.6 < 0.001b < 0.001c1
 25–34 22,919 28.6 (20.3)   9280 22.0 (14.6)   13,639 33.1 (22.3)   
 35–44 25,643 30.8 (21.3)   10,478 23.4 (15.0)   15,165 35.9 (23.4)   
 45–54 15,768 30.4 (20.6)   6166 24.4 (15.4)   9602 34.3 (22.5)   
 55–64 7942 31.0 (20.6)   2982 25.3 (16.4)   4960 34.5 (22.0)   
 65–95 4131 32.3 (22.4)   1637 27.2 (18.9)   2494 35.7 (23.8)   
SES of place of residence   df = 2, F = 45.1 < 0.001b   df = 2, F = 4.8 0.008c   df = 2, F = 54.4 < 0.001b < 0.001c2
 1–5 (low SES) 35,358 30.9 (21.3)   14,272 23.8 (15.5)   21,806 35.8 (23.2)   
 6–10 (intermediate–high SES) 36,549 29.6 (20.6)   14,474 23.5 (15.4)   22,075 33.7 (22.4)   
 Missing 4496 28.8 (20.0)   1797 22.6 (14.8)   2699 32.9 (21.8)   
BMI, kg/m2   df = 4, F = 268.3 < 0.001b   df = 4, F = 65.1 < 0.001c   df = 4, F = 89.4 < 0.001b 0.031c3
 < 18.5 1871 36.5 (25.4)   283 27.7(18.9)   1588 38.0 (26.1)   
 18.5–24.9 30,933 32.6 (22.4)   9906 25.2 (16.4)   21,027 36.2 (24.0)   
 25.0–29.9 26,100 28.8 (19.7)   13,011 23.4 (15.2)   13,089 34.2 (22.0)   
 ≥ 30 14,140 27.2 (18.1)   5648 21.3 (13.6)   8492 31.0 (19.6)   
 Missing 3359 27.7 (20.0)   1695 22.2 (14.9)   1664 33.2 (22.8)   
Smoking   df = 2, F = 716.6 < 0.001b   df = 2, F = 217.8 < 0.001c   df = 2, F = 269.7 < 0.001b < 0.001c4
 Ever 11,862 23.7 (16.9)   6658 20.3 (14.4)   5204 28.0 (19.6)   
 Never 43,754 31.7 (21.4)   16,717 24.9 (16.0)   27,037 36.0 (23.1)   
 Unknown 20,787 30.6 (21.2)   7168 23.5 (15.3)   13,619 34.4 (22.9)   
  1. H. pylori infection was defined as delta 13C-UBT of > 3.5 per thousand, see text for details
  2. BMI body mass index, df degrees of freedom, DOB delta over baseline, SD standard deviation, UBT urea breath test, SES socioeconomic status
  3. aP value by Student’s t test; t = − 74.0, df = 76,385.8
  4. bP value by ANOVA
  5. cP values from linear mixed model assessing interaction between sex and each independent variable in separate models: 1df = 4, F = 19.5; 2df = 2, F = 18.8; 3df = 4, F = 2.6; and 4df = 2, F = 32.3