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Table 2 Summary of articles describing sex differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR)

From: Is HPA axis reactivity in childhood gender-specific? A systematic review

Author (year) Sample size Age Sampling points Sampling medium Results
Adam (2010) 230 17.04 ± 0.36 years 0 and 40 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Bae (2015) 138 (70 controls) 10.7 ± 1.7 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva Higher levels in girls at awakening and 30 min after awakening, no sex differences in awakening response
Bouma (2009) 644 16.13 ± 0.59 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva Higher basal levels in girls, no difference in awakening responses
Bright (2014) 47 12–24 months 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Dietrich (2013) 1604 11.1 ± 0.55 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva AUCg and absolute cortisol values higher in girls, AUCi no sex differences
Fransson (2014) 157 14–16 years 0, 30, and 60 min after awakening Saliva Higher CAR in girls
Hatzinger (2007) 102 4.91 ± 0.44 years 0, 10, 20, and 30 min after awakening Saliva Higher CAR in girls
Jones (2006) 140 7–9 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva CAR present in boys, not in girls
Kuhlman (2015) 121 12.8 ± 2.3 years 0 and 45 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Martikainen (2013) 252 8.1 ± 0.3 years 0, 15, and 30 min after awakening Saliva Higher AUCg in girls, same increase and AUCi
Michels (2012) 385 5–10 years 0, 30, and 60 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Morin-Major (2016) 88 14.5 ± 1.8 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva Correlated to sex, higher CAR in girls
Osika (2007) 84 9.9 ± 0.55 years 0 and 15 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Pruessner (1997) 42 11.16 ± 1.99 years On 3 days: 0, 10, 20, and 30 min after awakening Saliva Marginal differences: higher in girls
Susman (2007) 111 Boys: 9, 11, or 13 years; girls: 8, 10, or 12 years 0, 20, and 40 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not associated with reactivity
Tzortzi (2009) 21 10–14 years From waking: every 20 min until 3 h after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Vanaelst (2013) 355 5–10 years 0, 30, and 60 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed
Williams (2013) 27 9.13 ± 1.41 years 0 and 30 min after awakening Saliva No sex differences; pubertal status not assessed