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Table 4 Ratings of protocols for sex and gender differences in area of investigation according to results of PubMed searches

From: Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania

 

Number of protocols (n = 240)

 

n (%)

Evidence of sex differences

 0, no sex differences

15 (6.3)

 1, there may be sex differences

31 (12.9)

 2, sex differences in at least 1 aspect

61 (25.4)

 3, sex differences in at least 2 aspects

56 (23.3)

 4, sex differences in at least 2 aspects, studies are large, from multiple groups

34 (14.2)

  NA, no literature available

43 (17.9)

Evidence of gender differences

 0, no gender differences

43 (17.9)

 1, there may be gender differences

51 (21.3)

 2, gender differences in at least 1 aspect

52 (21.7)

 3, gender differences in at least 2 aspects

30 (12.5)

 4, gender differences in at least 2 aspects, studies are large, from multiple groups

13 (5.4)

  NA, no literature available

51 (21.3)

  1. Scientific focus of each protocol was reviewed in PubMed for evidence of research indicating sex or gender differences exist in pathophysiology, phenomenology, clinical course, or treatment