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Table 4 Ratings of protocols for sex and gender differences in area of investigation according to results of PubMed searches

From: Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania

  Number of protocols (n = 240)
  n (%)
Evidence of sex differences
 0, no sex differences 15 (6.3)
 1, there may be sex differences 31 (12.9)
 2, sex differences in at least 1 aspect 61 (25.4)
 3, sex differences in at least 2 aspects 56 (23.3)
 4, sex differences in at least 2 aspects, studies are large, from multiple groups 34 (14.2)
  NA, no literature available 43 (17.9)
Evidence of gender differences
 0, no gender differences 43 (17.9)
 1, there may be gender differences 51 (21.3)
 2, gender differences in at least 1 aspect 52 (21.7)
 3, gender differences in at least 2 aspects 30 (12.5)
 4, gender differences in at least 2 aspects, studies are large, from multiple groups 13 (5.4)
  NA, no literature available 51 (21.3)
  1. Scientific focus of each protocol was reviewed in PubMed for evidence of research indicating sex or gender differences exist in pathophysiology, phenomenology, clinical course, or treatment