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Table 1 Study participant characteristics stratified by sex and hormonal contraceptive (HC) use

From: Sex differences in the association of phospholipids with components of the metabolic syndrome in young adults

  Females not taking HC Females taking HC Males p value
n (%) 199 (19.55) 269 (26.42) 550 (54.03)  
Age (years; mean ± sd) Age (years; mean ± sd) Age (years; mean ± sd) 20.1 (0.6) 20.01 (0.61) 20.07 (0.50)  
Waist circumference (cm; mean ± sd) 78.63 (±13.64) 76.09 (±11.96) 82.46 (±11.25) <0.001a <0.001b <0.05c
Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) 24.88 (6.09) 23.85 (6.09) 24.32 (4.17) 0.0504c
Glucose (mmol/L; mean ± sd) 4.87 (±0.38) 4.83 (±0.36) 5.05 (±0.44) <0.001a <0.001b
Triglycerides (mmol/L;mean ± sd) 0.85 (±0.38) 1.16 (±0.49) 1.08 (±0.56) <0.001a <0.05b <0.001c 
HDL-C (mmol/L; mean ± sd) 1.41 (±0.32) 1.42 (±0.30) 1.23 (±0.26) <0.001a <0.001b 
LDL-C (mmol/L; mean ± sd) 2.51 (±0.64) 2.59 (±0.62) 2.43 (±0.67) 0.001b
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg; mean ± sd) 110.92 (±11.69) 111.7 (±10.65) 123.2 (±12.4) <0.001a <0.001b 
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg; mean ± sd) 65.16 (±8.16) 65.74 (±7.35) 65.48 (±8.27)  
Western diet (mean ± sd) -0.25 (±0.79) -0.4 (±0.68) 0.41 (±0.94) <0.001a <0.001b <0.05c 
Healthy diet (mean ± sd) 0.01 (±0.84) -0.01 (±0.80) 0.03 (±0.96)  
Misreporting (n/%)     <0.01a <0.001b 
Underreporting 77 (38.7) 116 (43.12) 131 (23.82)  
Plausible reporting 80 (40.2) 109 (40.52) 222 (40.36)  
Over-reporting 8 (4.02) 11 (4.09) 33 (6)  
NA 34 (17.09) 33 (12.26) 164 (29.82)  
Physical Activity (in the last 7 days, n/%)     <0.001a <0.001b 
Less than once 39 (20) 55 (20.45) 36 (6.55)  
1 to 3 times 76 (38.19) 122 (45.35) 137 (24.91)  
More than 4 59 (29.65) 73 (27.14) 244 (44.36)  
NA 25 (12.56) 19 (7.06) 133 (24.18)  
Sedentary behaviour (hours per day, n/%)     <0.05a <0.05b 
0 / 1 (0.37) /  
1 26 (13.07) 42 (15.61) 37 (6.73)  
2 80 (40.2) 113 (42.01) 204 (37.09)  
3 47 (23.62) 74 (27.51) 142 (25.82)  
4 24 (12.06) 21 (7.81) 41 (7.45)  
NA 22 (11.06) 18 (6.69) 126 (22.91)  
Smoking (currently, n/%)
 No 154 (77.39) 217 (80.67) 355 (64.55)  
 Yes 23 (11.56) 33 (12.27) 68 (12.36)  
 NA 22 (11.06) 19 (7.06) 127 (23.09)  
Alcohol consumption ((in the last 7 days, n/%)     <0.001a <0.01c
 No 103 (51.76) 110 (40.89) 158 (28.37)  
 Yes 70 (35.18) 137 (50.93) 258 (46.91)  
 NA 26 (13.07) 22 (8.18) 134 (24.36)  
Ethnicity (n/%)
 Caucasian 159 (79.9) 234 (86.99) 452 (82.18)  
 Not Caucasian 34 (17.09) 33 (12.27) 84 (15.27)  
 NA 6 (3.02) 2 (0.74) 14 (2.55)  
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation · Superscript letters are statistical significance between groups (t test for continuous, Chi2 test for categorial variables): a: male vs female, b: male vs hormonal, c: female vs hormonal