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Table 1 Summary of studies included in the descriptive analysis

From: Gender-specific differences in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity during childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Group First author (year) N (% girls) Age (years) Sample protocol Assay Result Biasa
Saliva <8 years Klug (2000) [35] 119 (46%) 0 3-point day curve Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Eiden (2015) [36] 257 (?) 0.75 Laboratory temperament assessment Immunoassay No gender differences 3
Plusquellec (2011) [37] 466 (?) 1.6 ± 0. 1 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Spinrad (2009) [38] 84 (49%) 4.5 Preschool laboratory assessment Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Hatzinger (2007) [15] 102 (42%) 4.9 ± 0. 4 CAR Immunoassay Cortisol levels were lower in boys at awakening (P < 0.1) 1
Saliva 8–18 years Safarzadeh (2005) [39] 100 (58%) 6–14 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Isaksson (2015) [40] 68 (50%) 9 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Kjölhede (2014) [41] 231 (50%) 9.5 ± 1.5 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Vaillancourt (2008) [8] 154 (52%) 12.3 ± 0.8 Six samples standardized across time and day Immunoassay On Saturday morning, boys had significantly lower morning levels. On Monday and Thursday, no significant gender differences were found. 1
Gunnar (2009) [42] 82 (49%) 9–15 TSST Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Serum <8 years Fadalti (1999) [43] 72 (49%) 0–2 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 0
Ballerini (2010) [44] 319 (45%) 0–5 Surplus serum Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Parker (1978) [45] 106 (43%) 2–12 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 2
Serum 8–18 years Kulasingam (2010) [46] 419 (?) 0 – 15 Surplus serum Immunoassay No gender differences 3
Soldin (2005) [47] 376 (?) 0–18 Surplus serum Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Karbasy (2015) [48] 711 (?) 0–19 ? Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Fadalti (1999) [43] 82 (49%) 6–18 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 0
Barra (2015) [49] 120 (45%) 12.4 ± 3 Morning sample Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Chalew (1997) [50] 15 (73%) 12.7 ± 2.2 24-h blood withdrawal Immunoassay No gender differences 1
Linder (1990) [51] 82 (58%) 8–17 24-h blood withdrawal HPL No gender differences. 0
Urine <8 years       
Urine 8–18 years Dorn (1996) [52] 20 (55%) 15.2 ± 1.1 24-h urine sample Immunoassay No gender differences 1
  1. aNumber of high risks of bias out of four bias categories (selection, performance, detection, and other biases)