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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Sex differences in sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue of mice

Fig. 2

CL treatment induces expression of brown adipocyte markers in gWAT female specifically. a,b Immunoblot analysis of mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects of sex in mitochondrial proteins (ATP5A: p = 0.013, UQCRC2: p = 0.034, NDUFB8: p = 0.004) and significant interaction of sex and treatment (NDUFB8: p = 0.0054). Significant differences between male and female were determined by post hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni correction (mean ± SEM; n = 6, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01). c qPCR analysis of brown adipocyte markers and genes involved in mitochondrial FFA oxidation in gWAT of male and female mice treated with CL for 3 days and untreated control mice. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects of sex in brown adipocyte markers (Ppargc1a: p = 0.042, Cox8b: p = 0.011, Dio2: p <0. 0001) and significant interaction of sex and treatment (Ppargc1a: p = 0.008, Cox8b: p = 0.013, Dio2: p = 0. 001). Significant differences between male and female were determined by post hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni correction (mean ± SEM; n = 4, **p < 0.01). d Mitochondrial respiration in gWAT of male and female mice treated with CL for 3 days (mean ± SEM; n = 4, *p < 0.05) as determined by reduction of the electron acceptor dye TTC. eh VO2 (e), energy exchange ratio (RER) (f), and energy expenditure (EE) (g) are shown. h Total EE for 24 h (dark, 12 h; light, 12 h) without stimulation (h, left panel) and total EE for 12 h after CL injection (h, right panel). Arrows indicate the time of CL injection. Mean ± SEM, n = 6 per group

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