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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified by fetal sex

From: Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study

  Total Females Males p value
  n = 8556 n = 4230 n = 4326  
Maternal age 29.6 (5.3) 29.6 (5.3) 29.7 (5.3) 0.49
Anthropometrics
 Height (cm) 167.5 (7.4) 167.4 (7.5) 167.6 (7.3) 0.25
 Weight (kg) 66.3 (12.9) 66.4 (12.9) 66.1 (12.8) 0.32
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 (19.4–33.8) 24.0 (19.4–33.9) 23.8 (19.3–33.7) 0.12
Ethnicity     0.44
 Western 4664 (57.5%) 2316 (57.9%) 2348 (57.1%)  
 Non-Western 3447 (42.5%) 1682 (42.1%) 1765 (42.9%)  
Educational level     0.74
 Low 907 (11.6%) 462 (12.0%) 445 (11.3%)  
 Middle 3627 (46.4%) 1782 (46.2%) 1845 (46.7%)  
 High 3275 (41.9%) 1611 (41.8%) 1664 (42.1%)  
Smoking habits     0.004
 No 5452 (72.8%) 2740 (73.9%) 2712 (71.6%)  
 Yes-stopped 642 (8.6%) 330 (8.9%) 312 (8.2%)  
 Yes-continued 1399 (18.7%) 636 (17.2%) 763 (20.1%)  
Folic acid use-yes (%)     0.11
 No 1863 (29.3%) 899 (28.5%) 964 (30.2%)  
 Before 10 weeks 1978 (31.1%) 971 (30.7%) 1007 (31.5%)  
 Preconception start 2512 (39.5%) 1289 (40.8%) 1223 (38.3%)  
Nulliparous (%) 4718 (55.8%) 2353 (56.4%) 2365 (55.2%) 0.89
Gestational age at sonography (wks)     
 First trimester 12.5 (11.1–14.5) 12.5 (11.1–14.4) 12.5 (11.1–14.6) 0.04
 Second trimester 20.5 (18.9–22.9) 20.4 (18.8–22.8) 20.6 (18.9–23.0) <0.001
 Third trimester 30.3 (28.7–32.4) 30.3 (28.6–32.4) 30.4 (28.9–32.4) <0.001
Gestational age at birth (wks) 40.1 (36.9–42.0) 40.1 (36.9–42.0) 40.1 (36.7–42.1) 0.001
  1. Data are represented as n (%) or as the mean (SD) or as the median with the 90% range
  2. Differences in baseline characteristics were tested using student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Chi-square test