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Table 3 Plasma FFA levels with respect to clinical characteristics of the male and female patients with HCM

From: Sex-related differences in the associations between plasma free fatty acid levels and clinical features in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Variable FFA levels (mmol/L) in male patients FFA levels (mmol/L) in female patients
Present Absent p value Present Absent p value
NYHA functional class III or IV 0.36 (0.27–0.53) 0.38 (0.27–0.52) 0.754 0.42 (0.29–0.57) 0.39 (0.30–0.61) 0.649
Chest pain 0.38 (0.29–0.53) 0.37 (0.26–0.57) 0.346 0.42 (0.31–0.57) 0.38 (0.30–0.59) 0.521
Palpitation 0.40 (0.27–0.49) 0.36 (0.27–0.53) 0.560 0.49 (0.34–0.69) 0.38 (0.29–0.51) 0.025
Family history of HCM 0.35 (0.25–0.44) 0.38 (0.27–0.53) 0.148 0.42 (0.29–0.46) 0.39 (0.30–0.62) 0.626
Atrial fibrillation 0.46 (0.37–0.54) 0.36 (0.27–0.52) 0.053 0.42 (0.36–0.59) 0.39 (0.29–0.59) 0.285
Risk factors for SCD
 Family history of SCD 0.28 (0.14–0.34) 0.38 (0.27–0.52) 0.091 0.42 (0.21–0.60) 0.40 (0.30–0.59) 0.904
 Syncope 0.36 (0.22–0.51) 0.39 (0.28–0.52) 0.120 0.36 (0.25–0.52) 0.42 (0.32–0.61) 0.170
 Maximum wall thickness ≥30 mm 0.39 (0.28–0.54) 0.37 (0.27–0.50) 0.111 0.42 (0.25–0.68) 0.40 (0.30–0.56) 0.700
 Resting LVOTG ≥30 mmHg 0.39 (0.28–0.53) 0.30 (0.22–0.47) 0.028 0.40 (0.30–0.58) 0.45 (0.35–0.62) 0.393
Non-sustained VTa 0.37 (0.30–0.56) 0.37 (0.27–0.50) 0.533 0.51 (0.37–0.65) 0.37 (0.25–0.50) 0.015
Cardiovascular risk
 Hypertension 0.40 (0.29–0.50) 0.36 (0.27–0.53) 0.424 0.39 (0.30–0.63) 0.40 (0.30–0.56) 0.692
 Hyperlipidemia 0.40 (0.28–0.53) 0.36 (0.27–0.51) 0.257 0.44 (0.35–0.64) 0.38 (0.27–0.54) 0.040
 Smoking 0.36 (0.24–0.50) 0.39 (0.28–0.54) 0.094 0.30 (0.24–0.60) 0.40 (0.30–0.59) 0.492
Medications
 β-Blockers 0.37 (0.26–0.50) 0.40 (0.30–0.56) 0.054 0.39 (0.30–0.57) 0.43 (0.32–0.66) 0.321
 Non-dihydropyridine CCB 0.38 (0.28–0.48) 0.38 (0.27–0.52) 0.652 0.42 (0.36–0.55) 0.39 (0.30–0.61) 0.626
 Dihydropyridine CCB 0.38 (0.30–0.44) 0.38 (0.27–0.53) 0.790 0.30 (0.26–0.53) 0.41 (0.30–0.61) 0.238
 ACEI/ARB 0.39 (0.31–0.47) 0.38 (0.26–0.52) 0.533 0.38 (0.34–0.55) 0.40 (0.30–0.59) 0.739
 Aspirin 0.40 (0.30–0.55) 0.37 (0.26–0.51) 0.112 0.43 (0.31–0.56) 0.39 (0.30–0.60) 0.617
 Statins 0.42 (0.33–0.55) 0.36 (0.27–0.51) 0.119 0.51 (0.33–0.62) 0.39 (0.30–0.56) 0.175
 Diuretics 0.40 (0.33–0.67) 0.37 (0.27–0.52) 0.273 0.37 (0.24–0.56) 0.40 (0.30–0.60) 0.393
 Trimetazidine 0.38 (0.26–0.50) 0.37 (0.27–0.50) 0.940 0.29 (0.14–0.41) 0.40 (0.30–0.59) 0.097
Echocardiography
 Systolic anterior motion 0.38 (0.27–0.51) 0.39 (0.29–0.56) 0.580 0.41 (0.30–0.59) 0.34 (0.23–0.55) 0.292
 Severe mitral regurgitation 0.34 (0.25–0.52) 0.38 (0.27–0.52) 0.816 0.57 (0.40–0.73) 0.39 (0.30–0.56) 0.054
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range)
  2. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker, HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LVOTG left ventricular outflow tract gradient, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, NYHA New York Heart Association, SCD sudden cardiac death.
  3. aAmbulatory 24-h Holter monitoring data were obtained in 195 of the 412 study patients