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Table 7 Mouse ancestral Y genes

From: A primer on the use of mouse models for identifying direct sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues

Gene Protein function Expressiona Role [references]
Sry HMG box transcription factor Testis Triggers the fetal genital ridge to form a testis [3, 98, 99]
Rbmy, ~30 copies RNA binding motif protein Testis; brain, kidney Aids sperm morphogenesis [116, 128, 129]
Uba1y Ubiquitin-activating enzyme Testis; brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle Not known [130, 131]
Kdm5d (Smcy) Lysine specific demethylase Ubiquitous Has epigenetic effects by modifying histone H3. Interacts with MSH5 during spermatogenesis [132, 133]
Zfy1,2 Zinc finger transcription factors Testis, skeletal muscle Enable meiotic quality controls, the completion of the second meiotic division and sperm morphogenesis/function [73, 74, 104, 108, 109, 134]
Uty Tetratricopeptide repeat protein
without the demethylase activity of UTX/KDM6A (a demethylase)
Ubiquitous Involved in protein-protein interactions? [98, 99, 105, 135]
Usp9y Ubiquitin specific peptidase Testis, brain, kidney, skeletal muscle Loss of function in man leads to spermatogenic impairment [136, 137]
Ddx3y Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase Ubiquitous Not known [138]
Eif2s3y Subunit of elongation and initiation factor Ubiquitous Involved in protein synthesis. Supports spermatogonial proliferation [100, 102, 139]
  1. Data in italics indicate low transcript levels. For brain expression, also see [140]
  2. aBased on RNAseq data [22]