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Table 3 Summary of p values and accompanying effect sizes from ANCOVA tests comparing males and females

From: Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults

  Early childhood Late childhood Puberty Adolescence Young adult Adult
Linear distance p d p d p d p d p d p d
Maximum cranial width <0.001 0.88 <0.001 0.73 0.010 0.73 <0.001 0.95 <0.001 1.32 <0.001 1.20
Minimum frontal width 0.738 0.10 0.203 0.14 0.353 0.37 0.003 0.94 0.685 0.46 0.002 0.80
Maximum facial width <0.001 0.58 0.001 0.47 0.359 0.39 0.083 0.79 <0.001 1.67 <0.001 1.34
Mandibular width 0.006 0.47 0.001 0.46 0.075 0.71 0.006 0.78 0.020 0.92 <0.001 1.21
Maximum cranial length <0.001 0.63 <0.001 0.82 0.005 0.94 <0.001 1.94 0.001 1.31 <0.001 1.84
Cranial base width <0.001 1.10 <0.001 0.83 0.001 0.96 <0.001 1.41 <0.001 1.92 <0.001 1.74
Upper facial deptha <0.001 0.68 <0.001 0.67 0.001 1.09 <0.001 1.65 <0.001 1.66 <0.001 1.62
Middle facial deptha <0.001 0.68 <0.001 0.55 <0.001 1.18 <0.001 1.86 <0.001 1.90 <0.001 1.76
Lower facial deptha <0.001 0.64 0.002 0.37 <0.001 1.21 <0.001 1.46 <0.001 1.97 <0.001 2.10
Morphological facial height 0.026 0.36 0.011 0.31 0.030 1.06 0.002 1.50 <0.001 1.30 <0.001 1.58
Upper facial height 0.098 0.26 0.031 0.24 0.265 0.77 0.015 1.37 0.006 0.92 0.043 0.81
Lower facial height 0.015 0.39 0.023 0.33 0.001 1.13 <0.001 1.41 0.002 1.09 <0.001 1.17
Intercanthal width 0.651 0.05 0.647 0.10 0.552 0.11 0.004 0.52 0.237 0.50 <0.001 0.61
Outercanthal width 0.009 0.37 0.001 0.49 0.017 0.63 0.020 0.65 0.179 0.81 0.001 0.94
Palpebral fissure lengtha 0.019 0.33 0.002 0.42 0.104 0.44 0.989 0.24 0.599 0.42 0.442 0.46
Nasal width 0.025 0.35 0.011 0.35 0.129 0.54 <0.001 1.47 <0.001 1.52 <0.001 1.57
Subnasal width <0.001 0.54 0.001 0.46 0.922 0.10 0.321 0.50 0.001 0.77 <0.001 0.93
Nasal protrusion 0.478 −0.09 0.212 0.12 0.705 0.34 0.276 0.63 0.688 0.48 0.040 0.62
Nasal ala lengtha 0.008 0.41 0.004 0.35 0.084 0.78 <0.001 2.06 <0.001 2.04 <0.001 2.00
Nasal height 0.352 0.14 0.295 0.07 0.507 0.30 0.606 0.85 0.061 0.56 0.335 0.57
Nasal bridge length 0.257 0.17 0.737 −0.01 0.346 0.11 0.101 1.03 0.001 0.71 0.019 0.69
Labial fissure width 0.152 0.23 0.061 0.24 0.487 −0.01 0.040 0.36 0.015 0.88 <0.001 0.76
Philtrum width 0.090 0.28 <0.001 0.47 0.969 0.17 0.044 0.53 <0.001 1.05 <0.001 0.81
Philtrum length 0.044 0.30 0.006 0.38 0.012 0.78 <0.001 0.70 0.124 0.56 <0.001 0.68
Upper lip height 0.080 0.30 0.027 0.32 0.004 0.93 <0.001 1.19 0.098 0.64 0.033 0.59
Lower lip height 0.189 0.18 0.894 −0.08 0.257 0.43 0.042 0.67 0.018 0.53 0.022 0.55
Upper vermilion height 0.835 −0.01 0.450 −0.05 0.098 0.45 0.838 0.06 0.253 0.43 0.022 0.05
Lower vermilion height 0.135 0.23 0.921 0.02 0.603 0.19 0.574 0.17 0.417 0.06 0.042 0.05
Cutaneous lower lip height 0.602 0.10 0.667 −0.13 0.406 0.34 <0.001 0.65 <0.001 0.60 <0.001 0.64
  1. aIndicates that only the left side of this bilateral measurement is included. Sign of Cohen’s d: positive = males larger, negative = females larger. Significant p-values (p < 0.05) are indicated in italic font