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Table 1 Basic descriptive statistics on the study sample

From: Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults

  Males Females
Age group (years) N Mean age SD Mean height SD N Mean age SD Mean height SD
Early childhood (3–6) 98 4.39 1.12 110.1 9.8 95 4.38 1.18 109.2 10.7
Late childhood (7–12) 128 9.49 1.82 141.8 14.0 118 9.76 1.67 141.7 13.0
Puberty (13–15) 52 13.89 0.83 168.9*** 9.2 56 13.79 0.85 161.8 7.0
Adolescence (16–18) 46 17.43 0.83 180.3*** 9.2 65 17.63 0.67 166.5 7.5
Young adult (19–21) 98 20.12 0.84 180.9*** 8.4 215 20.01 0.82 167.0 6.4
Adult (22–25) 222 23.55 1.08 182.2*** 7.1 360 23.46 1.09 165.7 6.9
Total 646      909     
  1. Significant difference between males and females indicated as *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001. Age reported in years. Height reported in cm