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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients according to gender-specific tertiles of serum uric acid

From: Gender-related differences in the association between serum uric acid and left ventricular mass index in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

  Male Female
Variable First tertile (n = 33) Second tertile (n = 33) Third tertile (n = 33) p value First tertile (n = 20) Second tertile (n = 21) Third tertile (n = 21) p value
Serum uric acid range (μmol/L) <342.7 342.7–410.8 ≥410.8   <266.3 266.3–328.2 ≥328.2  
Age (years) 45.2 ± 10.1 45.9 ± 10.8 45.2 ± 9.4 0.959 48.5 ± 12.9 50.9 ± 9.4 50.8 ± 12.5 0.755
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 3.5 26.0 ± 3.3 27.4 ± 2.9 0.022 25.0 ± 3.0 24.4 ± 2.6 24.5 ± 3.4 0.820
Menopause 9 (45 %) 11 (52 %) 11 (52 %) 0.863
Hypertension 8 (24 %) 11 (33 %) 7 (21 %) 0.508 6 (30 %) 8 (38 %) 8 (38 %) 0.824
Diabetes mellitus 3 (9 %) 0 (0 %) 2 (6 %) 0.365 0 (0 %) 1 (5 %) 0 (0 %) 1.000
Dyslipidemia 8 (24 %) 10 (30 %) 14 (42 %) 0.274 3 (15 %) 5 (24 %) 7 (33 %) 0.408
Current smokers 18 (55 %) 18 (55 %) 21 (64 %) 0.689 0 (0 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (5 %) 1.000
Duration of obstructive HC (months) 7 (1.5–42) 12 (2–66) 12 (1.5–60) 0.435 12 (1.25–36) 12 (1.5–24) 12 (3–72) 0.562
NYHA class III/IV 27 (82 %) 30 (91 %) 28 (85 %) 0.672 16 (80 %) 19 (91 %) 18 (86 %) 0.610
Syncope 10 (30 %) 8 (24 %) 12 (36 %) 0.563 6 (30 %) 7 (33 %) 10 (48 %) 0.459
Family history of HC 8 (24 %) 9 (27 %) 3 (9 %) 0.143 8 (40 %) 4 (19 %) 4 (19 %) 0.212
Family history of sudden death 5 (15 %) 4 (12 %) 2 (6 %) 0.614 4 (20 %) 0 (0 %) 2 (10 %) 0.073
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.8 ± 16.9 118.3 ± 17.7 113.5 ± 13.2 0.256 114.5 ± 13.5 120.5 ± 20.7 117.5 ± 22.9 0.616
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.9 ± 10.9 74.8 ± 12.5 72.7 ± 9.9 0.742 69.3 ± 8.6 75.1 ± 12.9 70.4 ± 11.1 0.257
Heart rate (beats/min) 67.8 ± 9.5 69.1 ± 10.6 68.8 ± 9.7 0.861 72.4 ± 14.1 66.6 ± 8.7 73.5 ± 14.4 0.147
Atrial fibrillation 0 (0 %) 3 (9 %) 4 (12 %) 0.156 2 (10 %) 1 (5 %) 3 (14 %) 0.682
Non-sustained ventricular tachycardiaa 2 (8 %) 1 (4 %) 1 (4 %) 0.836 1 (6 %) 1 (6 %) 3 (21 %) 0.414
Medications         
 Beta-blockers 26 (79 %) 30 (91 %) 23 (70 %) 0.098 14 (70 %) 18 (86 %) 13 (62 %) 0.213
 Calcium antagonists 12 (36 %) 10 (30 %) 4 (12 %) 0.066 5 (25 %) 9 (43 %) 11 (52 %) 0.194
 Amiodarone 2 (6 %) 1 (3 %) 2 (6 %) 1.000 0 (0 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (5 %) 1.000
 ACEI/ARB 6 (18 %) 2 (6 %) 3 (9 %) 0.370 4 (20 %) 4 (19 %) 6 (29 %) 0.801
 Statins 2 (6 %) 6 (18 %) 2 (6 %) 0.208 1 (5 %) 3 (14 %) 4 (19 %) 0.508
 Aspirin 5 (15 %) 9 (27 %) 11 (33 %) 0.223 6 (30 %) 3 (14 %) 6 (29 %) 0.498
 Diuretics 0 (0 %) 3 (9 %) 1 (3 %) 0.320 2 (10 %) 1 (5 %) 2 (10 %) 0.864
Laboratory data         
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 73.7 ± 12.1 79.5 ± 10.0 78.4 ± 11.2 0.089 59.1 ± 12.5 59.9 ± 12.8 61.3 ± 8.5 0.824
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 104.4 ± 11.1 99.7 ± 13.6 101.2 ± 13.3 0.313 101.5 ± 17.0 98.5 ± 13.7 99.6 ± 13.4 0.805
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.77 ± 0.70 4.85 ± 0.46 4.94 ± 0.58 0.509 4.96 ± 0.55 4.82 ± 0.82 4.78 ± 0.43 0.645
 HbA1c (%) 5.56 ± 0.40 5.55 ± 0.54 5.68 ± 0.63 0.528 5.45 ± 0.26 5.69 ± 0.78 5.64 ± 0.35 0.316
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.34 ± 0.73 4.68 ± 1.18 4.85 ± 1.03 0.108 4.21 ± 0.89 4.76 ± 0.96 4.62 ± 1.09 0.186
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.13 ± 0.24 1.07 ± 0.28 1.01 ± 0.20 0.144 1.26 ± 0.37 1.23 ± 0.21 1.29 ± 0.32 0.814
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.61 ± 0.71 3.00 ± 1.04 3.05 ± 0.95 0.102 2.43 ± 0.71 2.94 ± 0.77 2.90 ± 0.70 0.056
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.58 1.52 ± 0.64 2.18 ± 1.23 0.001 1.34 ± 0.82 1.62 ± 0.78 1.61 ± 0.91 0.476
 hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.11 (0.30–2.12) 1.26 (0.69–1.83) 1.36 (0.88–2.99) 0.291 1.04 (0.39–1.78) 0.81 (0.28–1.65) 1.67 (0.68–2.96) 0.111
 NT-proBNP (pmol/L) 1140.9 (863.9–1459.1) 1314.9 (812.5–2089.4) 1154.1 (699.6–1578.7) 0.536 1518.2 (862.2–2670.2) 1392.5 (833.6–2558.0) 2308.2 (1205.9–2966.6) 0.299
Serum uric acid (μmol/L) 292.5 ± 42.8 373.3 ± 19.1 477.6 ± 54.0 <0.001 236.4 ± 22.0 298.2 ± 13.0 388.9 ± 44.0 <0.001
Echocardiography         
 Systolic anterior motion 30 (91 %) 33 (100 %) 31 (100 %) 0.365 18 (90 %) 20 (95 %) 20 (95 %) 0.684
 Moderate or severe MR 13 (39 %) 12 (36 %) 11 (33 %) 0.877 10 (50 %) 7 (33 %) 8 (38 %) 0.536
 LVOTG at rest (mmHg) 78.1 ± 27.5 89.7 ± 34.4 66.0 ± 31.6 0.011 81.3 ± 33.5 85.7 ± 32.1 72.2 ± 32.1 0.398
 LVOTG at rest ≥30 mmHg 33 (100 %) 33 (100 %) 27 (82 %) 0.003 18 (90 %) 20 (95 %) 19 (91 %) 0.864
 LVOTG after provocation (mmHg)b 96.2 ± 35.9 98.9 ± 21.6 91.7 ± 30.2 0.843 90.6 ± 8.0 88.3 ± 20.7 85.6 ± 18.8 0.877
Cardiac magnetic resonance         
 Left atrium diameter (mm) 37.8 ± 6.6 39.1 ± 8.3 42.6 ± 7.2 0.025 39.6 ± 8.6 38.8 ± 6.5 43.8 ± 8.0 0.088
 LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) 46.8 ± 3.6 46.2 ± 5.2 46.3 ± 3.4 0.828 45.1 ± 4.5 45.6 ± 3.8 43.4 ± 3.9 0.213
 Maximum wall thickness (mm) 23.1 ± 3.6 24.3 ± 5.6 23.0 ± 3.6 0.449 23.1 ± 3.5 21.9 ± 4.3 24.0 ± 7.4 0.429
 Maximum wall thickness ≥30 mm 1 (3 %) 5 (15 %) 2 (6 %) 0.266 1 (5 %) 1 (5 %) 3 (14 %) 0.605
 LV ejection fraction (%) 71.5 ± 7.5 72.7 ± 4.6 72.4 ± 8.9 0.775 72.1 ± 7.8 71.2 ± 7.1 72.7 ± 7.3 0.805
 LV mass (g) 162.5 ± 45.2 194.4 ± 77.8 185.0 ± 65.2 0.122 117.6 ± 37.5 136.6 ± 50.5 157.0 ± 63.0 0.058
 LV end-diastolic volume index (mL/m2) 65.2 ± 12.3 66.2 ± 15.1 63.9 ± 15.1 0.797 60.1 ± 10.0 69.8 ± 16.4 61.8 ± 13.0 0.053
 LV end-systolic volume index (mL/m2) 18.7 ± 6.7 17.9 ± 4.6 17.7 ± 7.0 0.786 16.9 ± 7.3 20.4 ± 7.6 16.9 ± 5.8 0.177
 Stroke volume index (mL/m2) 46.5 ± 9.4 48.3 ± 12.0 46.2 ± 12.6 0.723 43.2 ± 6.9 49.3 ± 10.7 44.8 ± 9.9 0.100
 Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 3.16 ± 0.69 3.16 ± 0.92 3.02 ± 0.70 0.709 2.99 ± 0.61 3.31 ± 0.87 3.07 ± 0.89 0.398
 LV mass index (g/m2) 88.7 ± 23.7 103.4 ± 37.0 96.6 ± 33.4 0.177 71.2 ± 23.1 83.7 ± 31.3 97.7 ± 36.9 0.030
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, number (percentage), or median (interquartile range)
  2. MR mitral regurgitation and other abbreviations as in Table 1
  3. aAmbulatory 24-h Holter monitoring results were available in 127 of the 161 study patients
  4. bLVOTG was provoked in 50 of the 161 study patients