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Table 4 Relationships between selected echocardiographic parameters and molecular markers related to myocardial remodelling assessed in left ventricle and HF in male and female pigs with and without tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (the results of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients)

From: Sex differences in porcine left ventricular myocardial remodeling due to right ventricular pacing

Variables (units) Male Female
r p r p
LVEF (%) −0.76 <0.001 −0.54 0.03
LVEDV (ml) 0.76 <0.001 0.18 0.50
LVEDV, relative increase (%) −0.42 0.04 −0.2 0.47
LA/Ao 0.78 <0.001 0.62 0.009
RWTd −0.56 0.002 −0.23 0.38
Em/Am 0.20 0.35 −0.07 0.78
BNP, mRNA (AU) 0.74 <0.001 0.75 <0.001
GATA4, mRNA (AU) 0.63 0.004 0.49 0.06
TGF-β1, mRNA (AU) 0.61 0.001 0.13 0.63
MMP9, mRNA (AU) −0.08 0.71 0.00 0.99
TIMP1, mRNA (AU) −0.04 0.84 0.17 0.54
NGAL, mRNA (AU) −0.59 0.002 0.16 0.54
Col1A1, mRNA (AU) 0.31 0.14 −0.23 0.41
Col1A2, mRNA (AU) 0.20 0.33 −0.33 0.23
Col3A1, mRNA (AU) 0.09 0.65 −0.24 0.41
Water soluble collagen (μg/mg wet tissue) −0.41 0.06 0.06 0.85
Total recoverable collagen (μg/mg wet tissue) −0.16 0.44 −0.19 0.53
Total gelatinolytic activity (AU) −0.49 0.02 −0.32 0.31
Cross-sectional cardiomyocyte diameter (μm) −0.36 0.09 0.53 0.08
  1. LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, LVEDV left ventricle end-diastolic volume, LVEDV, relative increase (LVEDV in end-point/LVEDV 1 month before euthanasia)*100 %, LA/Ao left atrial/aorta ratio, RWTd relative wall thickness at end diastole (2 × LVPWd/LVEDD, LVPWd end-diastolic thickness of left ventricle posterior wall, LVEDD left ventrical end-diastolic diameter), Em/Am the ratio of an early and late diastolic velocity, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, GATA4 GATA binding protein 4, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor β1, MMP9 matrix metalloproteinase type 9, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, TIMP1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1, Col1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1, Col1A2 collagen type I, alpha 2, Col3A1 collagen type III, alpha 1