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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Sex differences in porcine left ventricular myocardial remodeling due to right ventricular pacing

Fig. 2

RNA expression of selected genes related to neurohormonal activation, hypertrophy, and extracellular matrix remodeling. RNA level was determined in left ventricle myocardium in sham-operated pigs (controls) and in right ventricle (RV) paced pigs in subsequent stages of heart failure (mild, moderate, and severe HF), separately in male (black columns) and female animals (white columns). a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), b GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), c transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), d matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP9), e tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), and f neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and normalized against the product of GAPDH. Values are presented as means ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. the control group; # p < 0.05 female vs. male pigs (in particular study group)

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