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Fig. 3 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 3

From: Sex-specific regulation of chemokine Cxcl5/6 controls neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in acute inflammatory states

Fig. 3

Sustained release of tissue-derived Cxcl5 throughout reperfusion in males but not females contributes to I/R injury. ae Male and female rats were subjected to 30-min mesenteric ischemia followed by up to 2-h reperfusion. ac Expression of bone marrow neutrophil mobilization pathways: a bone marrow cell Cxcr2 mRNA, b bone marrow total Cxcl1 protein, and c bone marrow total Cxcl5 protein. Sham n = 4 rats/group, I/R n = 6 rats/group. d Mesenteric tissue mRNA levels of Cxcl5 and Cxcl1. Levels of mRNA are normalized to 18S and calculated as fold expression relative to mean value of male sham group. Sham n = 3 rats/group, I/R n = 6 rats/group. e Plasma protein levels of Cxcl5 and Cxcl1, at 30-min and 2-h reperfusion. Sham n = 5 rats/group, I/R n = 7 rats/group. fh Male rats were treated with either anti-Cxcl5 (20 μg/kg, iv) or control IgG (20 μg/kg, iv) 1 h prior to mesenteric ischemia (n = 5 rats/group). f Leukocyte/vessel wall interactions in mesenteric venules throughout reperfusion. g Circulating RP1+ neutrophils and CD68+ monocytes. h Mesenteric necrosis, measured by nitroblue tetrazolium at 2-h reperfusion. Data are presented as mean ± sem. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ns P > 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. §P < 0.0001 by two-way ANOVA and ‡P < 0.05 by Bonferroni’s post-test

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