Skip to main content

Table 6 Between-group whole-brain activation (n = 24; males = 12)

From: Sex differences in psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to pain in older adults: a cross-sectional study

SPM contrast Cluster region Volume (mm3) Peak T MNI coordinates
Subregions (BA) x y z
Mild pain > warmth (deactivation)      
Females > males Left cerebrum   4.51 −6 34 4
  Limbic lobe 14,608   −8 21 25
  Rostral anterior cingulate cortex (24) 2312   −3 36 5
  Middle frontal gyrus 2280   −25 12 52
  Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (32) 2192   −7 41 3
  Superior frontal gyrus 1432   −11 11 64
  Left supplemental motor area (6) 912   −13 12 64
  Prefrontal cortex (8) 320   −28 17 42
Anterior prefrontal cortex (10) 288   −7 49 3
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (9) 256   40 15 38
Anterior cingulate cortex (33) 120   −5 19 25
Moderate pain > warmth (activation)      
Males > females Right cerebrum   3.51 32 −58 28
  Superior temporal gyrus (22) 3304   55 −37 9
  Middle temporal gyrus 2472   43 −63 5
  Postcentral gyrus (1,2,3) 712   59 −19 23
  Insula (13) 488   44 −41 19
Precuneus 464   29 −64 36
Angular gyrus (39) 352   35 −63 35
  Secondary somatosensory cortex (40) 304   59 −36 22
  Fusiform gyrus (37) 200   48 −41 −18
  Supramarginal gyrus 128   58 −35 24
  1. Between-group analyses. Significant clusters were derived using 3dClustSim and the intrinsic smoothness of the data to define corrected whole-brain cluster thresholds as those having a voxel level p = 0.05, cluster volume 1659 voxels, volume >120 mm3, and family wise error corrected (FWE) p = 0.05. Areas are reported with the parent cluster first defined by Peak T, followed by subregions within each cluster (MNI coordinates of subregions are approximate). Mild pain > warmth, females > males = deactivation (findings result from females being less deactivated than males). Moderate pain > warmth, males > females = activations
  2. SPM Statistical Parametric Mapping, BA Brodmann area, MNI Montreal Neuroimaging Institute