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Table 3 Females and males whole-brain activation (n = 24; males = 12)

From: Sex differences in psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to pain in older adults: a cross-sectional study

SPM contrast Cluster region Volume Peak T MNI coordinates
Subregions (BA) (mm3)   x y z
Mild pain < warmth Right cerebrum   −3.96 48 −54 −14
  Superior temporal gyrus 2744   43 −47 17
  Cuneus 2152   18 −79 25
  Precuneus 1623   12 −64 26
  Supramarginal gyrus 1488   42 −44 31
  Middle occipital gyrus 992   31 −65 1
  Dorsal posterior cingulate gyrus 840   23 −64 3
  Right hippocampus 824   20 −30 −3
  Fusiform gyrus (37) 672   47 −54 −18
  Superior temporal gyrus (22) 440   64 −46 3
  Right postcentral gyrus (1,2,3) 328   46 −38 61
  Cingulate cortex (30) 296   20 −67 8
  Inferior temporal gyrus (20) 216   49 −54 −15
  Insula (13) 200   44 −15 3
  Middle temporal gyrus (21) 176   61 −18 −7
Moderate pain > warmth Left cerebrum   4.03 −32 −84 −30
  Occipital lobe 2384   −35 −77 −18
  Cerebellum 1904   −6 −62 −34
  Left fusiform gyrus 936   −41 −74 −17
  Middle occipital gyrus 928   −42 −71 −15
  Middle frontal gyrus 896   −1 39 31
  Pons 624   13 −41 −38
  Right brainstem 576   6 −44 −45
  Associative visual cortex (19) 392   −35 −84 −14
  Left brainstem 360   −18 −30 −33
  Cerebellum 304   −11 −58 −34
  Lingual gyrus 136   −33 −84 −15
  1. One sample combined males + females analysis. Significant clusters were derived using 3dClustSim and the intrinsic smoothness of the data to define corrected whole-brain cluster thresholds as those having a voxel level p = 0.05, cluster volume 1659 voxels, volume >120 mm3, and family wise error corrected p = 0.05. Areas are reported with the parent cluster first defined by Peak T, followed by subregions within each cluster (MNI coordinates of subregions are approximate). Mild pain < warmth = deactivations; moderate pain > warmth = activations
  2. SPM Statistical Parametric Mapping, BA Brodmann area, MNI Montreal Neuroimaging Institute