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Table 2 Substance use behavior among men and women

From: Sex differences in substance use, health, and social functioning among opioid users receiving methadone treatment: a multicenter cohort study

   Sex Adjusted analyses, men vs. women
Outcome Total Men Women OR/MD 95 % CI Adjusted p
  n = 492 n = 266 n = 226    
Primary       
 Opioid use in prior 3 months, urine screening; n (%) 239 (48.5) 129 (48.5) 110 (48.5) 1.03 0.71, 1.50 0.911
Secondary       
 Proportion of use in prior 3 months, urine screening; n (%)       
  Amphetamines 23 (4.7) 15 (5.6) 8 (3.5) 0.68 0.28, 1.66 0.616
  Benzodiazepines 195 (39.6) 95 (35.7) 100 (44.1) 1.60 1.10, 2.33 0.055
  Cannabis 114 (23.1) 74 (27.8) 40 (17.6) 0.57 0.37, 0.89 0.056
  Cocaine 171 (34.7) 97 (36.5) 74 (32.6) 0.80 0.54, 1.17 0.417
  Ecstasy 23 (4.7) 13 (4.9) 10 (4.4) 1.00 0.69, 1.44 0.985
 Positive urine screens in prior three months, percent; median (Q 1, Q 3)       
  Amphetamines 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) −0.56 −1.11, −0.01 0.141
  Benzodiazepines 0 (0, 27.3) 0 (0, 20.0) 0 (0, 30.8) −0.00 −0.27, 0.27 1.008
  Cannabis 0 (0, 100.0) 0 (0, 100.0) 0 (0, 50.0) −16.55 −26.90, −6.19 0.011
  Cocaine 0 (0, 12.5) 0 (0, 17.7) 0 (0, 7.7) −0.20 −0.52, 0.12 0.397
  Opioids 0 (0, 25.0) 0 (0, 27.8) 0 (0, 20.0) −0.21 −0.45, 0.06 0.273
 Alcohol use disorder, M.I.N.I.; n (%)       
  Alcohol dependence 26 (6.3) 14 (6.5) 11 (5.7) 0.81 0.34, 1.90 0.809
  Alcohol abuse 13 (3.2) 7 (3.2) 6 (3.1) 0.84 0.27, 2.58 0.844
 Smoking behavior, self-report       
  Current smokers; n (%) 412 (84.1) 212 (80.0) 199 (88.8) 1.93 1.14, 3.27 0.053
  Cigarettes smoked daily; mean (SD) 16.9 (10.4) 18.3 (11.7) 15.4 (8.6) −2.81 −4.79, −0.84 0.024
  Age of first smoking, years; mean (SD) 15.5 (5.4) 15.5 (5.5) 15.4 (5.3) 0.11 −0.91, 1.12 0.909
Sensitivity analysis       
 Proportion of use in prior month, MAP; n (%)       
  Alcohol 227 (46.0) 129 (48.5) 97 (42.9) 0.73 0.50, 1.05 0.213
  Heroin 57 (11.5) 35 (13.2) 21 (9.3) 0.54 0.29, 1.00 0.142
  Illicit methadone 26 (5.3) 11 (4.1) 14 (6.2) 1.43 0.60, 3.41 0.635
  Illicit benzodiazepines 53 (10.7) 29 (10.9) 23 (10.2) 0.90 0.49, 1.66 0.879
  Cocaine 89 (18.0) 42 (15.8) 46 (20.4) 1.53 0.91, 2.59 0.241
  Crack 57 (11.5) 31 (11.7) 25 (11.1) 0.86 0.42, 1.77 0.839
  Amphetamines 32 (6.5) 16 (6.0) 15 (6.6) 0.39 0.10, 1.50 0.330
  Cannabis 241 (46.9) 143 (53.8) 88 (41.2) 0.49 0.34, 0.72 <0.001
  1. All analyses have been adjusted for age, methadone dose, and duration of treatment using multivariable regression and for multiple testing error using false discovery rate; results for binary variables reported as OR and results for continuous variables reported as MD. Variables with non-normal distribution (positive drug urine screens) have been log transformed for analysis; differences are reported on the log scale. Data for alcohol use disorder measured by the MINI was only available for 409 participants
  2. Q 1 quartile 1, Q 3 quartile 3, M.I.N.I. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, SD standard deviation, MAP Maudsley Addiction Profile, OR odds ratio, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval