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Table 1 Comparison by sex of patient population

From: Sex differences and the role of IL-10 in ischemic stroke recovery

Category Female Male p
Age, mean (standard deviation) 72.934 (14.6709) 64.471 (14.5089) 0.000
IL-10 levels, median (IQR) in pg/mL 8.4 (4.163–11.278) 6.225 (3.81–8.43) 0.014
Stroke risk factor history    
 Hypertension, % 80.6 % 73.3 % NS
 Heart disease, % 26.4 % 30.0 % NS
 Diabetes, % 29.2 % 25.6 % NS
 Smoking, % 13.9 % 20.2 % NS
 High cholesterol, % 61.1 % 65.6 % NS
Pre-stroke “good condition”    
 Baseline modified Barthel ≥ 15, % 93.4 % 80 % NS
 Baseline modified Rankin ≤ 2, % 87.8 % 94.9 % NS
Markers of stroke severity    
 Admission NIH, median (IQR) 6 (3, 16.25) 4 (2, 14) NS
Acute outcomes post-stroke    
 Discharge NIH, median (IQR) 3 (0.25, 4.75) 2.5 (1.00–7.500) NS
 Change in NIH, median (IQR) −1.00 (−8.00 to 0.00) −1.00 (−6.00 to 0.00) NS
 Death in hospital, % 14.5 % 6.3 % NS
 Death or discharge to hospice, %  20.0 % 10.5 % NS
 Discharge to home, % 38.2 % 47.4 % NS
3-month negative outcomes    
 Modified Barthel ≤ 14, % 25.6 % 20.4 % NS
 Modified Rankin score >2, % 45.0 % 25.9 % NS
 Composite negative outcome, % 40.8 % 23.5 % 0.014
12-month negative outcomes    
 Modified Barthel ≤ 14, % 19.2 % 16.2 % NS
 Modified Rankin score >2, % 32.0 % 25.0 % NS
 Composite negative outcome, % 30.3 % 18.6 % NS
  1. Comparison of age, stroke risk factors, pre-stroke condition, stroke severity, and stroke outcomes between females and males. Females had higher IL-10 levels, were significantly older, and had worse composite 3-month outcomes compared to males. A composite negative outcome was defined as death or disabled with a modified Rankin score greater than 2 or a modified Barthel score less than or equal to 14