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Table 4 Gonadectomy modifies cardiomyocyte Ca 2+ release and contraction

From: Testosterone modulates cardiac contraction and calcium homeostasis: cellular and molecular mechanisms

Parameter Component Functional change [Ca 2+ ] (mM) Pacing rate (Hz) Duration of GDX (weeks) Species Reference
Cell shortening Peak contraction 1 0.5 16 Rat [91]
a 0.5–2 0.5 2 Rat [99]
Relaxation rate aSlowed 1 0.5 16 Rat [91]
0.5–2 0.5 2 Rat [99]
Intracellular Ca2+ Peak Ca2+ transient 1 0.2 9 Rat [76]
  a 0.5–2 0.5 2 Rat [99]
Ca2+ transient decay rate aSlowed 0.5–2 0.5 2 Rat [99]
  1 0.2 9 Rat [76]
  1. aIndicates that the effect of GDX was reversed by treatment with testosterone in studies by Curl et al. [99] and Golden et al. [91].