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Table 3 Clinical characteristics, blood, and urine biochemistry of study participants

From: Extracellular vesicles in urine of women with but not without kidney stones manifest patterns similar to men: a case control study

  Controls from the general population First time kidney stone formers
Women ( n= 24) Men ( n= 36) Women ( n= 50) Men ( n= 60)
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 44 ± 12 42 ± 12 41 ± 16 51 ± 14*
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 28 ± 7 (n = 22) 28 ± 5 (n = 32) 28 ± 8 (n = 33) 31 ± 7 (n = 36)
 Serum calcium (mg/dL) 9.5 ± 0.5 (n = 23) 9.1 ± 1.7 (n = 31) 9.5 ± 0.5 (n = 39) 8.9 ± 2.3 (n = 47)
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.70 ± 0.1 (n = 23) 0.96 ± 0.2* (n = 31) 0.73 ± 0.1 (n = 39) 0.98 ± 0.2* (n = 46)
 Serum uric acid (mg/dL) 4.4 ± 1.2 (n = 23) 6.0 ± 1.2* (n = 31) 4.7 ± 1.0 (n = 39) 6.4 ± 1.4* (n = 47)
 Serum phosphate (mg/dL) 3.5 ± 0.5 (n = 23) 3.4 ± 0.4 (n = 31) 3.7 ± 0.6 (n = 39) 3.4 ± 0.6* (n = 47)
Urine biochemistry
 pH 6.3 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 0.6 6.2 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.6
 Osmolality (mOsm) 623 ± 272 664 ± 224 539 ± 238 689 ± 214*
 Urine volume (mL/24 h) 1,613 ± 742 1,955 ± 732 1,864 ± 920 1,675 ± 655
 Albumin (mg/24 h) 5 ± 13 1.3 ± 3 4 ± 6 6 ± 8
 Protein (mg/24 h) 12 ± 16 25 ± 19* 25 ± 16 30 ± 22
 Creatinine (mg/24 h) 844 ± 207 1,615 ± 618* 836 ± 302 1,309 ± 628*
 Sodium (mmol/24 h) 108 ± 47 180 ± 73* 106 ± 40 146 ± 73*
 Potassium (mmol/24 h) 49 ± 27 77 ± 31* 40 ± 21 53 ± 27*
 Magnesium (mg/24 h) 108 ± 54 155 ± 81* 89 ± 43 122 ± 63*
 Calcium (mg/24 h) 202 ± 81 214 ± 126 175 ± 98 210 ± 124
 Oxalate (mg/24 h) 22 ± 8.6 29 ± 15 19 ± 11 24 ± 21
 Phosphate (mg/24 h) 645 ± 253 965 ± 468* 581 ± 236 822 ± 414*
 Uric acid (mg/24 h) 352 ± 138 599 ± 223* 373 ± 160 447 ± 226
 Citrate (mg/24 h) 646 ± 238 637 ± 370 526 ± 281 535 ± 314
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD and were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student’s t test. *P < 0.05 between men and women of the same group; P < 0.05 between control and stone formers of the same sex.