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Table 2 Numbers of urinary EVs from epithelial cells of different segments of nephron and urinary tract

From: Extracellular vesicles in urine of women with but not without kidney stones manifest patterns similar to men: a case control study

Urinary EV/mg creatinine Controls from general population First time kidney stone formers
Nephron segments Markers Women ( n= 24) Men ( n= 26) Women ( n= 24) Men ( n= 26)
Glomerulus Podocin + galectin-1 positive 2,708 (1,037, 4,059) 24* (6, 183) 225 (77, 292) 20* (7, 91)
Bowman’s capsule Claudin-1 positive 96 (51, 322) 11* (8, 26) 11 (4, 17) 14 (6, 35)
Proximal tubule URAT1 positive 367 (195, 1,223) 39* (18, 61) 36 (20, 74) 30 (21, 50)
Thin loop of Henle SLC14A2 positive 182 (76, 544) 5* (3, 23) 11 (6, 18) 9 (4, 50)
Thick loop of Henle Uromodulin positive 21,960 (7,423, 46,782) 1,033* (236, 3,389) 2,652 (482, 5,031) 1,458 (302, 4,558)
Distal tubule SLC12A3 positive 611 (93, 1,459) 28* (14, 48) 24 (8, 50) 15 (7, 42)
Collecting duct V-ATPase positive 57 (11, 220) 16* (7, 23) 12 (5, 46) 11 (4, 30)
Renal pelvis Cytokeratin 19 positive 99 (51, 225) 21* (2, 37) 16 (9, 25) 9 (6, 16)
Urinary bladder Neprilysin positive 2,320 (1,308, 3,170) 222* (112, 427) 243 (121, 382) 252 (126, 593)
  1. Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile) × 103/mg creatinine and analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student’s t test/Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis (rank sums) test. *P < 0.05 between men and women of the same group; P < 0.05 between control and stone formers of the same sex.