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Table 1 Total number of phosphatidylserine, exosome, and inflammatory markers positive for urinary EVs

From: Extracellular vesicles in urine of women with but not without kidney stones manifest patterns similar to men: a case control study

  Controls from the general population First time kidney stone formers
Women ( n= 24) Men ( n= 26–36) Women ( n= 24–50) Men ( n= 26–60)
Urinary EV/mg creatinine
 Total phosphatidylserine positive 3,181 (1,144, 6,072) 697* (243, 1,158) 3,068 (1,143, 6,166) 1,416 (515, 3,435)
 Total CD63 (exosome) positive 911 (528, 1,258) 185* (86, 580) 2,308 (525, 5,637) 1,062* (267, 2,628)
Cellular adhesion/inflammatory molecules positive for urinary EV/mg creatinine
 Total E-cadherin positive 6 (2, 21) 5 (2, 9) 7 (2, 17) 4 (2, 9)
 Total ICAM-1 positive 184 (106, 320) 160 (33, 657) 204 (93, 627) 163 (43, 627)
 Total VCAM-1 positive 720 (133, 1,708) 48* (6, 215) 46 (15, 198) 35 (6, 206)
 Total tissue factor positive 494 (214, 1,012) 204* (67, 667) 611 (241, 2,063) 421 (115, 1,962)
 Total MCP-1 positive 20 (5, 36) 3* (2, 6) 8 (3, 16) 3* (1, 8)
  1. Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile) × 103/mg creatinine and analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student’s t test/Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis (rank sums) test. *P < 0.05 between men and women of the same group; P < 0.05 between control and stone formers of the same sex.