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Table 1 Depression in disease states: sex differences

From: Not all depression is created equal: sex interacts with disease to precipitate depression

Disease Baseline sex difference Comorbid depression: Disease, sex, & depression: Ref
Epilepsy M > F Between 6-55%; suicide 5-25 higher; depression most associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); bidirectionality No sex difference; possibly M > F in left TLE associated depression [9, 1315, 17, 1922, 30]
Alzheimer’s disease F > M (but M > F for morbidity) 35-50%; depressive symptoms in 86%; bidirectionality History of depression greater risk factor for AD in men; female mice more susceptible to social disinhibition [10, 36, 3842]
Cancer Type dependent: Liver: M > F Lung: M > F (but F > M given same risk factors) Thyroid: F > M Up to 40%, depending on type of cancer and severity; bidirectionality Type and severity dependent; if stratify by severity, sex difference (F > M) is diminished [11, 50, 53, 7276]
Cardiovascular disease Age dependent: M > F younger than 45; F > M older than 45 15-20%; 1/3 of stroke patients; bidirectionality F > M; approximately twice as high in females or an equivalent ratio to the baseline depressed population [4, 12, 86, 87, 89, 90]
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