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Figure 4 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 4

From: Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

Figure 4

Schematic representation of interactions among factors contributing to the development of preeclampsia and cardiovascular risk in women as they age. Some risk factors, such as diabetes and obesity, may predispose women to hypertensive pregnancy disorders and preeclampsia at younger ages, and independently they may predispose women to cardiovascular complications and cognitive decline at older ages (A). Alternatively, preeclampsia itself might have direct causal effect (B) on vascular outcomes by inducing irreversible vascular and metabolic changes that may increase the overall risk for cardiovascular disease.

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