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Figure 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 1

From: Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

Figure 1

Schematic of sex-specific conditions activating cells of the vascular compartment, including the vascular endothelium, platelets, leukocytes, and red blood cells, resulting in release/production of cell membrane-derived microvesicles. Cell membrane-derived microvesicles are biologically active, themselves stimulating neighboring cells and releasing mitogenic, vasoactive, or inflammatory cytokines that ultimately affect vascular tone, including cerebral blood flow and brain function. Compromises in cerebral blood flow could negatively impact brain structure, and ultimately, cognition. The inset is a horizontal magnetic resonance image showing white matter hyperintensities (arrows) in the brain of a recently menopausal woman.

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