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Table 1 Complexities in hormonal regulation of knee tissues contribute to sex-differences in severity and incidence of knee OA

From: Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

Changes in systemic levels of sex steroids.
Changes in local production of hormones or their metabolites.
Presence of hormone receptors, their affinity for ligand, or components of their signaling pathway.
Distribution of hormone-responsive cells in individual tissues of the knee.
Physiological status, including age and the presence of disease or tissue injury.