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Table 1 Worse prognosis in males in acute diseases and in females during chronic inflammatory diseases

From: Sex and inflammation in respiratory diseases: a clinical viewpoint

Disease Number of patients Age of patients Significance References
Acute diseases (higher in males)     
  Hyaline membrane disease 54,064 Premature newborns Ratio 1.76:1 [12]
  Meconium aspiration 21,472 Newborns P < 0.02 [13]
  Mortality and morbidity of hospitalized children Nearly 500,000 Children P < 0.001 [18]
  Severe sepsis in children 1,586,253 Children P < 0.001 [19]
  Pediatric hospital admissions 92,332 Children Males 59% [20]
  Acute respiratory failure after bone marrow transplantation 318 Children P < 0.04 [21]
  Tuberculosis in Bangladesh 266,189 Adults Ratio M/F, 1:0.33 [15]
  Tuberculosis in India 90,000 Adults P < 0.05 [16]
  Community-acquired pneumonia 2-year prospective study Adults P < 0.0001 [22]
  Acute respiratory distress syndrome 333,004 Adults P < 0.01 [23]
  Post-injury pneumonia 30,288 More than 65 years P < 0.001 [1]
  Hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia 623,718 More than 65 years P < 0.001 [24]
  In-hospital community-acquired pneumonia (elderly) 717 More than 65 years P < 0.02 [25]
  Australian seniors with chronic respiratory disease 108,312 More than 65 years P < 0.0003 [26]
  Mycoplasma respiratory disease (mice) 55 Adult animals P < 0.001 [27]
Chronic respiratory diseases (poorer prognosis in females)     
  Chronic inflammatory diseases (children) 149 children Children P < 0.01 [28]
  Asthma in adolescents (sex ratio in severe asthma 5 F/1 M) 2,693 Adolescents Ratio 1.85:1 [29]
  Chronic pulmonary diseases (females smokers) Meta-analysis (55,709) Adults P < 0.008 [30]
  HIV-related pneumocystis pneumonia 3,070 Adults P < 0.001 [31]
  Cystic fibrosis 21,047 1 to 20 years: females 60% more likely to die, outside same risk P < 0.001 [32]
  Asthma 3,013 5 to 62 years P < 0.01 [33]
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) emergencies 794 Adults P < 0.01 [34]
  COPD Clinical commentary Adults More females than males [35]