Skip to main content


Figure 4 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 4

From: Sex differences in kidney gene expression during the life cycle of F344 rats

Figure 4

Histopathological assessment of male-specific mononuclear cell infiltration. Kidney sections (H&E stained) from male and female animals at 78 and 104 weeks were analyzed for presence and severity (scored 0–4 for absent to marked) of mononuclear cell infiltration, a common indicator of immune response and inflammation. Male animals were found to have higher severity scores on average than females at both 78 and 104 weeks. The figure shows kidneys of a female at 78 weeks (A) and a male at 78 weeks (B) exhibiting mild and moderate mononuclear cell infiltration, respectively.

Back to article page