Women have higher levels of Ki67+ T cells as well as activated T cells in peripheral blood and GALT as measured by flow cytometry. (A) Ki67+ cells are in the process of proliferation. (B) Higher levels of T cell activation in women as compared with men in peripheral blood and GALT measured as % of HLA-DR+ T cells. (C) Following PMA ionomycin stimulation a higher percentage of CD4+ T cells produce TNFα in women than in men. (* = p<.05).