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Figure 5 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 5

From: Sex differences in primary hypertension

Figure 5

Sex differences in arterial blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension. Shown is the difference in arterial blood pressure between males and females in animal models of hypertension including Ang II infusion in MF1 mice (MF1+Ang II) [39]a, aldosterone infusion in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (SD+Aldo) [41]a and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats (W+L-NAME) [44]c. Salt-sensitive models include SD rats maintained on a 1% NaCl diet and infused with aldosterone (SD+Aldo-NaCl) [54]a or deoxycorticosterone acetate (SD+DOCA-NaCl) [55]c and, DOCA-NaCl treated Sabra salt-sensitive rats (SS+DOCA-NaCl) [60]c and DS rats maintained on 8% NaCl (DS+NaCl) [57]a. Fetal programming models of hypertension include rats subjected to intrauterine growth restriction (SD+IUGR) [64]a and intrauterine nutrition restriction (W+IUNR) [65]c, respectively. Genetic models include the SHR [170]a, SPSHR [171]c and New Zealand genetically hypertensive (NZGH) rat [172]c. Transgenic models include the mRen2.Lewis rat [49]c. Single gene knock out models of hypertension include the low density lipoprotein receptor (C57-LDL-R-/-) [73]c, cyclooxgenase-2 (129-COX-2-/-) [74]c and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (129/C57-eNOS-/-) [76]b on the C57BL/6, 129Sv and 129Sv/C57BL/6J background strains, respectively. *p < 0.05, male vs female (see cited references for experimental and statistical details of individual studies). Note, studies measuring MAP by radiotelemetrya were preferentially cited over studies using indwelling cathetersb or those reporting SBP determined by tail plethysmographyc.

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