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Table 3 Gaps in knowledge on the contributions of mechanical factors to sex differences in knee OA

From: Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis

Limb Alignment  
1. Are there sex differences in the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral limb alignment?
2. How does limb alignment change across the lifespan for men and women?
3. Are there sex differences in the prevalence of limb malalignment between obese men and obese women?
Muscle Function  
1. Can strength training attenuate the incidence and progression of knee OA and is the intervention more or less effective in women?
2. Do observed sex differences in muscle function during walking among individuals with knee OA contribute to either the development or worsening of the disease?
3. What are the magnitudes of the cartilage stresses associated with differences in the mechanical output of lower limb muscles observed in men and women with knee OA during walking?
Obesity  
1. Does the differential influence of fat and muscle mass on the development and progression of knee OA differ for men and women?
2. Do circulating levels of inflammatory markers predict the sex difference in the prevalence of knee OA among older adults?
3. Do meniscal lesions occur more frequently in men or women?