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Figure 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Figure 1

From: Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

Figure 1

Illustrates* different combinations of complete/high dimorphism and perfect/partial internal consistency at the level of 3G-sex. A. A system with complete dimorphism (i.e., no overlap between the form in “males” and in “females”) at each level and perfect consistency between levels (i.e., one has the same type of form at all levels). The latter is represented by the pink and blue vertical bars, with each bar marking the form at each of the three levels of a single “female” and a single “male”, respectively. Only such a system would be dichotomous, that is, all subjects would be either “male” or “female”. B. A system with high dimorphism (i.e., some overlap between the form in “males” and in “females”) at some levels and perfect consistency between levels. In such a system there would be “male”, “female” and “intersex“ subjects. The latter will be characterized by having the “intersex” form at all levels (an example for such a subject is represented by the purple vertical bar). In such a system subjects can be aligned on a “male”-”female” continuum, as shown in the upper bar. C. A system with complete dimorphism at each level and partial consistency between levels. In such a system there would be “male”, “female” and “intersex” subjects, with the latter characterized by having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels (an example for such a subject is represented by the pink and blue short bars). D. A system with high dimorphism at some levels and partial consistency between levels. In such a system there would be “males”, “females” and the two types of “intersex” subjects. 3G-sex is such a system. * the graphs were not created on the basis of actual distributions and are for illustration purpose only.

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