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Table 2 Peripheral mechanisms of knee OA

From: Neural and psychosocial contributions to sex differences in knee osteoarthritic pain

Study Male Female Not stated Findings
Cairns et al., 2001 [27] Rat Rat   Glutamate injected into masseter muscle produced greater nociceptor excitation in female rats.
Cook and Nickerson, 2005 [31] Rat Rat   Mu-opioid agonists are more effective in male vs. female arthritic rats; effects are both peripheral and central.
Flake et al., 2005 [26]   Rat   Compared ovariectomized with and without estrogen; Estrogen increases nociceptor excitability of TMJ neurons in cells from uninjured and inflamed rats.
Heppleman, 1997 [21]    Rat, cat, dog, monkey Review discussing innervation of joint structures including 71 references. No mention of male or female in text.
Schaible et al., 2010 [25]    Rats, mice Review discussing effects of cytokines on joint afferents including 55 references. No mention of male or female in text.
Schwab and Funk, 1998 [22]    Rat Shows neuropeptide innervation of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.
Stein, 1995 [34]    Rat; human; cultured cells Review article discussing peripheral opioid effects in arthritis including 50 references; no mention of sex differences.
Suri et al., 2007 [23] Human Human   Shows innervation of articular cartilage in subjects with OA; no mention of sex differences.
Walsh et al., 2010 [24] Human Human   Shows vascularization and innervation of RA and OA joints. No mention of sex differences.