TLR agonist treatment effects viral titer but not histology score. Male and female mice treated with either LPS or PAM show no difference in mean histology score (Figure 7A). Figure 7B shows that male mice treated with LPS have greater viral replication in the heart compared to those treated with either PBS (p=0.005) or PAM (p=0.002). Treatment of female mice either PAM (p=0.001) or LPS (p=0.001) results in greater viral replication compared to those treated with PBS. In addition, female mice treated with PAM have greater levels of viral replication compared to male mice given the same treatment (p=0.021). Numbers of mice used in these experiments were as follows: Male PBS=10, PAM=9, LPS=16; Female PBS=9, PAM=5, LPS=17.