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Table 3 Male studies of cognition & behavior in mouse models of AD

From: Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

Hormone/ Regimen Manipulation Timing, Route, Dose Comparison A Cognition & Behavioral Measure and Ref. AD Tg Model
Hormone Depletion Gnx 3 mos N/A Intact vs Gnx Gnx ↓ SAB (Y-maze) [177] 3xTg-AD
Flutamide B Postnatal d1-20 IP injection of flutamide (50 mg/kg/d) Intact: Veh vs Flutamide Flutamide ↓ SAB (Y-maze) [116] 3xTg-AD
Genetic Knockdown of Aromatase C None N/A Intact: Aromatase+/− vs Aromatase+/+ Aromatase+/− ↑ spatial memory (Hole-board) [178] APP23
DHT Gnx 3 mos Immediate s.c. DHT (10 mg) 90+d Gnx: Veh vs DHT DHT ↑ SAB (Y-maze) [177] 3xTg-AD
  1. Symbols: ↑=increase, ↓=decrease, ↔=no change.
  2. Abbreviations: Tg=transgenic, mos=months, d=day, Gnx=gonadectomy, SAB=spontaneous alternating behavior (thought to reflect working memory), IP=intraperitoneal, Veh=Vehicle, DHT=dihydrotestosterone.
  3. A, All comparisons are between groups of AD Tg mice.
  4. B, Flutamide is an androgen receptor antagonist.
  5. C, Males with aromatase knockdown have increased endogenous testosterone levels, and decreased brain and sera estradiol levels.