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Table 1 Site of action in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus

From: Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

Evidence Site of action Reference
Organization of motoneuron number   
Androgens can attenuate cell death in cultured motoneurons Motoneuron [27]
Androgen receptor is expressed in muscle but not motoneuron during critical period Muscle, not motoneuron [28][26]
Ablation of spinal cord containing SNB does not prevent masculinization of target muscle Not motoneuron [29]
Ablation of target muscle prevents masculinization of SNB motoneurons Muscle [30]
Anti-androgen delivered to target muscles prevent masculinization of SNB motoneurons Muscle [31]
Administering CNTFa, trkB or trkC antagonists to target muscle more effective than systemic administration in preventing masculinization of SNB motoneurons Muscle [32]
SNB motoneurons of androgenized XTfm/Xwt females survive regardless of functional Ar within motoneurons Not motoneuron [33]
Selective genetic muscle AR replacement does not masculinize SNB of Tfm rats Not only myocytes [34]
Selective genetic deletion of Ar in myocytes reduces but does not prevent masculinization of SNB Not only myocytes [35, 36]
Organization of motoneuron size   
Neonatal axotomy of SNB motoneurons prevents normal soma size Muscle [37]
Organization of motoneuron dendritic extent   
ER agonist/antagonist delivered to target muscles more effective that systemic delivery in regulating dentritic outgrowth of SNB motoneurons Muscle [38]
Activation of motoneuron size   
Axotomy of SNB motoneurons prevents androgenic maintenance of SNB motoneuron size Muscle [3941]
AR agonists or antagonists delivered unilaterally to target muscles do not affect ipsilateral motoneurons Motoneuron [42]
Size of SNB motoneurons of androgenized XTfm/Xwt females depends on functional Ar within motoneurons Motoneuron [43]
Selective overexpression of AR in myocytes does not result in increases in quadriceps motoneuron size Not myocyte [44]
Activation of motoneuron gene expression   
Local injection of target muscle extracts from castrated males increases CGRP in SNB motoneurons Muscle [45, 46]
Axotomy of SNB motoneurons affects AR Muscle [47][39][48]
CGRP, CDH2 in SNB motoneurons of androgenized XTfm/Xwt females depends on functional Ar within motoneurons Motoneuron [49, 50]
Activation of dendritic extent   
AR agonists or antagonists delivered unilaterally to target muscles do affect ipsilateral motoneurons Muscle [42]
Selective overexpression of AR in myocytes results in androgen-dependent increases in dendritic extent in quadriceps motoneurons Myocyte [44]