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Table 1 Considerations for design of studies of sex and cardiovascular structure and function in health and disease

From: Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

1. Concepts of sex differences must be integrated into research design. 4. The hormonal and gonadal state must be considered along with reproductive history in females.
2. Phenotypes are dictated by sex chromosomes and modulated by sex steroid hormones. 5. From a statistical standpoint, studies should be powered to detect sex differences.
3. A sex difference may be the simplest possible explanation for a particular experimental outcome. 6. Extrapolation of experimental outcomes from one sex to the other is invalid.