Gender and estrogen receptor-α affect the estradiol-induced [Ca2+
release in adult hypothalamic astrocytes. The estradiol (1 nmol/l)-induced [Ca2+]i release was greater in female compared with male wild type astrocytes (P < 0.05). In female estrogen receptor-α knockout (ERKO) astrocytes, 1 nmol/l estradiol failed to induce a significant [Ca2+]i response (P > 0.05) . *Significantly different compared with all controls and female ERKO mice (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test). †Significantly different compared with male wild type astrocytes stimulated with 1 nmol/l estradiol (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test).