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Announcing the BoSD Early Career Award

Springer Nature is sponsoring the Biology of Sex Differences (BoSD) Early Career Award for the best paper published in BoSD each year.

Nominations are now being accepted for two awards:

  • 2024 Award for articles published in BoSD from January
  • 2021 through August 2023 2025 Award for articles published in BoSD from September 2023 through August 2024

Two awards will be given at OSSD 2025 

Winners will give talks at OSSD 2025 and receive a $1000 travel award.

  • Nominee will be first author or senior author on a paper published in BoSD - co-first authors may be nominated and split the award/talk AND
  • Graduate students at time of manuscript submission OR
  • Post-docs at time of manuscript submission OR
  • Investigators up to 6 years after training completion (post-doctoral/residency) at time of award (OSSD meeting) 

Deadline 1st September 2024 for nomination

Send a brief nomination letter, the manuscript & CV to Jill B. Becker, EIC

This information may be included with submission for new manuscripts and manuscripts will be considered for the award after peer review.

Featured Article: Treating sex and gender differences as a continuous variable can improve precision cancer treatments

Treating sex and gender differences as a continuous variable can improve precision cancer treatments. 

Authors: Wei Yang, Joshua B. Rubin

Published:15th April 2024

New Content Item

Some efforts to improve cancer therapy involve the idea of personalizing treatments to who a patient is and how their cancer operates. Personalizing treatment can involve straighforward features like a patient’s age, family cancer history, personal disease and surgical histories, as well as more complex features like analysis of their specific cancer’s mechanisms of growth and spread throughout the body. One glaring omission in common personalization schemes is the sex and gender of the patient. While patient sex and gender is known to substantially affect cancer rates and response to treatment, we do not yet use this information in treatment planning. There are multiple reasons for this but among them is that we tend to think about sex and gender as an either/or categorization. You are either a male/man or a female/woman. This is not accurate as there are many variables that contribute to who an individual is as a male/man or female/woman. This variability is a challenge to incorporating these features into personalized treatment planning. Here, we have developed a method to address this challenge. It is our great hope that this will enable the use of this critically important element of personalization in cancer treatment planning and improve survival rates for all patients.

New Collections now publishing

Read more about our newly launched Collection on the topic of Eschewing the Binary: Sex and Gender Science in Human and Non-human Animal Research.

Aims and scope

Biology of Sex Differences is unlike any other scientific journal: articles focus on sex differences in all aspects of an individual or organism. Everything from molecules to behavior and from studies of cellular function to clinical research studies are reported in this journal. Biology of Sex Differences aims to improve understanding of basic biological principles mediating sex differences and foster development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools that are sex-dependent. To the extent that gender influences biological outcomes, this journal also is interested in research addressing gender differences. Articles are expected to report results that directly compare sex/gender differences in the statistical analysis.

Biology of Sex Differences addresses a broad audience of readers. Articles are expected to report and discuss their findings using language that is accessible to non-specialists in the field, please minimize discipline-specific jargon. The Title and Abstract should be understandable to non-specialists. The novelty of the findings should be clear to all readers, non-experts as well as experts. To this end, the use of abbreviations should also be kept to a minimum. We now require a Plain English summary in addition to the Abstract.

Please refer to the “About” page for further details. Note also the changes to ‘Criteria’ that have been made including the requirement for 5 suggested reviewers included in the appropriate field during submission:

In your cover letter, please note two members of our Editorial Board to review your manuscript , dependent on the relevant expertise. In light of this, please ensure that there are no conflicts of interest.

Biology of Sex Differences is the official journal of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, and a publication of the Society for Women's Health Research.

Watch for new special collections announcements coming soon!



Eschewing the Binary: Sex and Gender Science in Human and Non-human Animal Research

This Collection is an occasion to highlight recent research and emerging perspectives on the interaction of sex and gender as well as to convene a conversation about how the social influences the biological, and in turn, how that interaction affects individuals. 

Sex/Gender Differences in Social Determinants of Health at Specialized Centers of Research Excellence (SCORE) on Sex Differences

We invite invites SCOR(E) Directors to submit articles from their Specialized Centers of Research (Excellence) addressing sex/gender differences in social determinants of health as it pertains to their health topics of focus.


Sex/Gender Differences in Cancer

We invite authors to submit articles to this Collection addressing the mechanisms underlying sex/gender differences in cancer incidence, treatment response, and survival. 

Sex Differences and Similarities in the Human Brain

We invite authors to submit empirical studies, meta-analyses, and theoretical articles to this Collection that aims to address on what and where sex-related variation can be found, but also how large or small, and how relevant or trivial these differences seem to be.


Sex Differences in COVID-19
We welcome submissions of original articles and reviews on preclinical and clinical research in which findings of new sex differences in COVID-19 are reported. We are particularly interested in studies in which potential mechanisms are tested.

Sex Differences in Development
We are interested in primary research or review articles that address sex differences in development that are influenced by environmental, social, genetic, hormonal, or other biological factors. Outcome measures may include brain, behavior and/or physiological processes in children/adolescents or animal models of these processes.


Sex differences in response to androgens: physiological and pathophysiological 
Guest Editor: Licy Yanes Cardozo

Hypertension, preeclampsia, renal and cardiovascular disease in pregnancy
Guest Editor: Vesna Garovic


Sex Differences in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Microbiome
Guest Editor: Kate Denton


Jill Becker, PhD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA

Associate Editors
Licy L. Yanes Cardozo, MD, PhD, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS USA
Rebecca L. Cunningham, PhD, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA
Joshua Rubin, MD, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Founding Editor
Arthur P Arnold, PhD, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

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Organization for the Study of Sex Differences (OSSD) President’s Message By Liisa Galea, Ph.D.

New Content ItemLiisa Galea PhD is the President of the OSSD. She is a Professor in the Department of Psychology, a member of the Djavad Mowifaghian Centre for Brain Health, the Lead of the Women’s Health Research Cluster, and Health Advisor to VPRI at University of British Columbia in beautiful Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. Galea is a world-renowned expert in sex differences and sex hormone influences on brain and behaviour in depression and Alzheimer’s disease. She is a leading contributor to the discovery and dissemination of knowledge locally, nationally, and globally through high-impact scientific publications and mobilization platforms that champion women working in mental health research.

Dr. Galea’s research can be found here

Affiliated with

  • Society for Women's Health Research

Annual Journal Metrics

  • Citation Impact 2023
    Journal Impact Factor: 4.9
    5-year Journal Impact Factor: 6.0
    Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 1.709
    SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 2.030

    Speed 2023
    Submission to first editorial decision (median days): 9
    Submission to acceptance (median days): 137

    Usage 2023
    Downloads: 1,178,807
    Altmetric mentions: 1,611